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CONFIDENTIAL The publication or reproduction of this document is forbid- 
den by the terms of the Espionage Act of June 15, 1917, under penalty of a fine 
of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment of not more than two years, or both 



Name of Examiner who is responsible for copy No 



75 



t^..j.....2^-^a^^^^l^- ---^.--.-^..^^Z.^^ 



EXAMINER'S GUIDE 

FOR 

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING 
IN THE ARMY 



Prepared especially for military use by the Sub- 
committee on Methods of Examining Recruits 
of the Psychology Committee of the 
National Research Council 

V 
Revised by direction of the Surgeon General of 
ihe Army and printed by the Medical Depart- 
ment, U. S. A., September, 1917 
Second revision, July, 1918 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1918 



' 1 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

I. Introductory statement 5 

1 . Purpose of psychological examination 5 

2. General plan of examination 5 

3. Organization and routine 6 

4. Utilization of results 7 

5. Conferences with officers 8 

II. Segregation of illiterates 11 

III . Group examination Alpha 13 

1 . Procedure IS 

2. Directions for scoring 23 

3 . Total score and rating 25 

IV. Group examination Beta 27 

1 . Directions for setting up apparatus 27 

2. Procedure 27 

3. Directions for scoring 33 

4. Total score and rating 34 

V. Individual examination 37 

1 . General directions 37 

2. Point scale examination 39 

(a) Procedure 39 

(b) Adaptation for use with illiterates 44 

(c) Expressing and interpreting results 44 

3. Stanford-Binet examination. 47 

(a) Procedure 47 

(6) Adai)tation for use with illiterates 67. 

(c) Expressing and interpreting results 67 

4. Performance scale examination 69 

(a) Procedure 69 

(6) Procedure for non-English-speaking subjects 82 

(c) Directions for using record blank 84 

(d) Directions for weighting 84 

(e) An abbreviated performance scale 85 

(/) Expressing and interpreting results 86 

5. Mechanical skill test 87 

Appendix A. — Table of equivalent scores. 91 

Appendix B. — Examiner's outfit. 92 

Appendix C. ^-Building and equipment 93 

3 




I.— INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. 



1. PURPOSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION. 

(a) To classify soldiers according to their mental ability, thus sup- 
plementing personnel records of occupational qualifications and as- 
sisting with assignment in the Army. 

(h) To supply a mental rating for each soldier Avhich shall assist 
personnel officers in building organizations of equal or of appro- 
priate mental strength. 

(c) To assist regimental, company and medical officers by careful 
examination and report on men who are not responding satisfactorily 
to training, or are otherwise troublesome. 

(d) To assist officers of development battalion with classification, 
grading, training, and ultimate assignment of men. 

(e) To assist in discovering men of superior mental ability who 
should be selected for officers' training camps, for promotion or for 
assignment to special tasks. 

(/) To assist in discovering and properly placing men of marked 
'special skill, as for example, observers or scouts for intelligence 
service. 

(g) To assist in discovering men who are mentally inferior and 
who in accordance with degree of defectiveness should be recom- 
mended for discharge, development battalions, labor organizations or 
regular military training. 

2. GENERAL PLAN OF EXAMINATION. 

(1) Segregation of men obviously illiterate. 

(2) Group examination Alpha (for literates) : 

Time, 40 to 50 minutes. 

Number, 100 to 200 men in a group. 

(3) Group examination Beta (for illiterates and men failing 
in examination Alpha) : 

Time, 50 to 60 minutes. 

Number, up to 60 men in a group. 

(4) Individual examinations (for men failing in Beta, or re- 
ferred) : 

Point-scale examination. 
Stanford-Binet examination. 
Performance-scale examination. 
Time, 15 to 60 minutes. 
Mechanical skill examination (supplementary) : 
Time, 15 to 30 minutes. 



5 



6 ' PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

The order of procedure is as follows : 

(a) A group consisting of 100 to 200 men will report to the 
psychological examiner at designated room for examination Alpha. 

(h) Men who can not read and write Phiglish at all should first 
be eliminated from this group b}^ directing those who can not read 
or write to stand, and by observing the manner in which the re- 
mainder fill out the headings of the examination Alpha blank. Those 
who are eliminated should be sent to the special Beta examining 
room ; the remainder should be given examination Alpha. 

{c) Men found later to have made scores of less than 15 (raw 
score) in examination Alpha should be given examination Beta. 

(d) Individuals rated D— after Beta or after Alpha and Beta will 
report by appointment for individual examination. It is estimated 
that not over 5 per cent of the strength of an organization should 
require individual ps3^chological examination. 

SuTnmary. — All enlisted men take either Alpha or Beta. Those 
who can read and write English, take Alpha immediately. Those 
who can not, take Beta immediately. Those who make scores of less 
than 15 in Alpha take Beta. All who fail in Beta take individual ex- 
amination. The form of individual examination given varies with 
the characteristics of the subject. Point-scale or Stanford-Binet ex- 
amination may be given to subjects who are able to understand Eng- 
lish fairly well. To all other subjects performance-scale examination 
should be given either alone or in addition to one of the other scales. 

3. ORGANIZATION AND ROUTINE. 

The value of these examinations will depend upon the perfection of 
organization and the efficiency of the routine procedure which is 
developed by the examining staff. The following points are espe- 
cially important: 

{a) Previous arrangement should insure the prompt reporting of 
men either by groups or individually at a given time and place for 
prescribed examination. Company officers accompanying groups to 
be examined, should be asked to list men Avho give trouble, or whom 
they would like to see examined individually; reasons and company 
record should be noted in each case. 

(h) Group and individual examination blanks should be scored 
and recorded as promptly as possible, and ratings prepared for im- 
mediate report. The chief psychological examiner is responsible for 
one complete file of all examinations, to be kept in easily accessible 
form by organizations. All available lists of names, such as company 
rosters, personnel officer lists, etc., should be used by examiners to 
simplify and to increase the accuracy of the reports. Time Avill often 
be saved by typing or writing scores directly on such lists, especially 
if they can be obtained in duplicate or triplicate. 

(<?) The intelligence rating of every man examined should be re- 
])()rted promptly to Personnel Officer, with comment concerning any 
special ai)titude noted. Company commanders should also have all 
available information as soon as men are assigned. 

{d) All cases of mental deficiency, as well as all cases for which 
neuro-i)sychiatric examination is especially indicated, should be re- 
ferred prom])tly to the psychiatrist through the camp or division 
surgeon. Complete rei)ort of psychological examination, on blank 
furnished for the purpose, must accompany every such case, whether 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 7 

referred for discharge, assignment to special organization, or neuro- 
psychiatric examination. 

(e) Ps3^chological record card, complete with recommendation and 
disposition of case, and report on cases recommended for neuro- 
psychiatric examination should be forwarded to the Surgeon Gen- 
eral's Office, Division of Psj^chology, after the soldier has left camp. 

(/) Weekly statistical sheet should be sent promptly on or before 
Tuesda}^ of each week to Surgeon General's Office. It should be sup- 
plemented by such letter statements and special reports as seem 
desirable. 

(g) Every effort should be made to cooperate as fully and effec- 
tivel}^ as possible with all officers of the camp or division for the 
increased efficiency of the Army. 

February 2, 1918, the following instructions wore issued, by the 
divisions concerned, to promote cooperation and increase the effi- 
ciency of the psychological and neuro-psychiatric services: 

PROVISION FOR COOEUINATION OF PSYCHIATRIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS 

IN DIVISIONAL TRAINING CAMPS. 

It is agreed between the Division of Psychology and the Division of Neuro- 
psychiatry : 

(1) That psychiatric survey of organizations shall be made in conjunction 
with psychological survey. 

(2) That for this purpose psychiatric examiners shall be present at group 
psychological examinations, to observe the behavior and appearance of 
soldiers. It is further provided that the work of the psychiatrist shall not 
interfere with the proper conduct of psychological examination. 

(3) That rooms numbered 5 and 6 in Psychology Building shall be desig- 
nated for psychiatric examining. 

(4) That the name, rank, and organization of individuals receiving grade 
E in group psychological examination shall be reported promptly to the 
division psychiatrist through the division surgeon. 

(5) That report of individual psychological examination shall be accepted 
by psychiatrist as part of the medical examination and shall be included in 
the case record if subject be recommended for discharge or for special assign- 
ment. 

Pearce Bailey, 
Major, M. R. C. Chief of Division of Xcuro-psi/cJiidtr!/. 

Robert M. Yerkes. 
Major, *Sf. C, X. A., Chief of Dirimon of Psychology. 

4. UTILIZATION OF RESULTS. 

Psychological ratings should be valuable alike to personnel offi- 
cers, line officers, and medical officers. To the first, as partial basis 
for placement of soldiers; to the second, as supplementary informa- 
tion for guidance in connection with training, or special treatment 
of men who give trouble; and to the third, as partial basis for recom- 
mendation for discharge, special examination, or medical treatment. 

The results of examination should be made available to these 
officers as early as possible. It is therefore the duty of the psycho- 
logical examiner to see that every drafted man is examined as 
promptly as possible after arrival in camp, and that report is im- 
mediately made to the personnel officer, to the medical officer if the 
case requires it, and subsequently to the company commander to 
Avhom the man is assigned. 

The draft contains an ade(]uate number of high-grade men to 
fill positions of responsibility. The psychological examination helps 



8 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

to reveiil iioncominissioned officer material and suitable candidates 
for officers' training camps. It also supplies partial basis for as- 
signment of men to specific trades or occupations in the Army. In 
making selections for training in any specialized branch of military 
service it will probably be wise to select individuals whose intelli- 
gence scores are well above the lower quartile for the occupation 
in question. Apart from inequalities in experience or special train- 
ing, the difference in the scores of two men will, in a general way, 
indicate their relative value for assignment to a specific trade or 
occupation. 

Emphasis should be placed upon the desirability of balancing the 
special trades and occtipations in the various companies and regi- 
ments. Each unit should haA^e its proper share of high, medium, 
and low grade men for special assignments as well as for the ranks. 
It is evident that the ultimate value of the psychological service in 
balancing the units will depend very largely upon the establishment 
of proper cooperative relations with personnel officers. Frequent 
conferences with the personnel officers should be held, and ways 
and means considered for securing effective coordination of effort. 

To be of the greatest value the psychological examination should 
be given at the earliest possible date after the arrival of the men 
in camp, in order that the personnel officer may have the results on 
the qualification cards when making assignments. Unless the scores 
are available .and used properly at this time, companies will be 
built up that are very uneven in general intelligence. In order to 
balance companies and regiments satisfactorily it is necessary to 
observe not only the special requirements laid down in the tables of 
organization, but also the requirement that there shall be equiva- 
lent grades of intelligence in company organizations and in the 
various trades and occupations demanded in each. 

Cooperative relations should be established between psychiatrists 
and psychological examiners in order that company commanders 
and personnel officers may obtain promptly detailed information 
concerning any individual recruit. The loAver grades of mental 
capacity are clearly indicated by the Alpha and Beta examinations. 
The lowest cases should be given individual examination with the 
least possible delay. Company commanders should be encouraged 
to refer for examination men whose drill or conduct is unsatisfac- 
tory. Where development battalions have been formed special study 
should be made of the results of the development work in the case 
of men of various grades of intelligence. The psychological service 
should be able to make an effective contribution m the handling of 
development units. 

5. CONFERENCES WITH OFFICERS. 

In order that the results of examinations may be used effectively, 
it is necessary that psychological examiners take pains to acquaint 
all officers in their stations with the nature and uses of intelligence 
ratings. To this end, conferences with groups of officers, by regi- 
ments or other convenient unit, should be arranged by the chief 
psychological examiner. In these conferences the methods of 
examining should be explained clearly and simply, and the possi- 
ble ways of using psychological information described and illus- 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 9 

trated. The examiner should strive especially to take the military 
point of view. Unwarranted claims concerning the accuracy of the 
results should be avoided. In general, straightforward common- 
sense statements will be found more convincing than technical de- 
scriptions, statistical exhibits, or academic arguments. 

In order to make such conferences of the greatest- value, the views 
and criticisms of officers should be elicited as fully as possible. In 
this way misunderstandings will be cleared up and the way paved 
for effective cooperation. 

The criticisms most likely to arise are the following: (1) That the 
score made is greatly influenced by such accidental factors as fatigue, 
homesickness, illness, time of day, etc. (2) That the tests do not 
measure real ability, but instead merely reflect the man's educational 
and social advantages. (3) That the score may be greatly influenced 
by coaching or by a repetition of the test. 

While it has been well enough established that such factors as 
these are not present in a sufficient degree to invalidate seriously the 
test results, their presence can not be denied. It can hardly be claimed 
that the mental or physical condition of the subject and the circum- 
stances under which the test is given have no effect upon the score. 
Similarly, it Avould be unreasonable to suppose that the result is 
wholly uninfluenced by educational advantages. While coaching is 
not likely to invalidate the results to any great extent in army test- 
ing, it is nevertheless a factor which should be carefully guarded 
against bv measures designed to prevent the dissemination of blanks. 
As regards practice effects, it has been found that the average gain 
in a repeated Alpha examination is approximately 8 points (raw 
score). The P. E. of an Alpha raw^ score is approximately 5 points. 
While cases will admittedly occur in which men will receive a rating 
on the psychological examination somewhat higher or lower than 
they deserve, this would occur on anv method of classification that 
might be used. It may well be emphasized that the psychological 
examination furnishes for immediate use a rating of the men which 
in validity compares not unfavorably with ratings furnished by offi- 
cers after months of acquaintance. 

In using the ps^^chological results there is a tendency to overlook 
the fact that they give evidence concerning but one quality important 
in a good soldier. The company commander should be cautioned not 
to neglect the importance of other qualities, such as personal ap- 
pearance, energy, military experience, leadership, initiative, tact, etc. 
It is no criticism of the psychological rating that it fails to measure 
these other qualities of the soldier. All it does is to afford a reason- 
ably reliable measure of one essential quality — i. e., general intelli- 
gence. Although there is a fairl}^ high correlation betAveen general 
intelligence and other desirable traits, like character, leadership, etc., 
the fact must not be overlooked that there are individuals of high 
intelligence who are not properly fitted to command. It has been 
proved quite definitely that the results of the psychological examina- 
tions are valuable when properly used. They can not, however, be 
made to take the place of all other criteria. Each officer should be 
encouraged to scrutinize the men of his command carefully in order 
to discoAT^er their individual differences in other traits as well as in 
intelligence. 



10 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINII^G IN THE ARMY. 

Individual cases will be found in which the information of the 
company commander is greatly at variance with the psychological 
rating. In such cases one would not be warranted in making sweep- 
ing claims for the infallibility of the test results. It should be 
pointed out that the discrepancy may be due to the presence or ab- 
sence of important traits not measured by the intelligence examina- 
tion. Such cases, however, afford opportunity for the psychological 
examiner to make clear the value of a rating Avhich is absolute rather 
than relative. The company commander will readily appreciate the 
fact that his own estimate is relative; that he inevitably judges his 
men with reference to the average in his company. For this reason 
in the company which in general is inferior a high man Avill be 
overestimated. Similarly, in a specialh^ high companj^ a low man 
Avill be underestimated. Company commanders w^ill readily appre- 
ciate the importance of bringing to light extreme cases of unevenness 
in different organizations in order that such inequalities may be 
remedied. 



II.— SEGREGATION OF ILLITERATES. 



Subjects reporting for group examination belong in one of the 
following classes : 

(1) Men totally illiterate or unable to understand English; 

(2) Men who read or write English only with difficulty ; 

(3) Men who read and write English readily. 

Examination Alpha will not measure the intelligence of the first 
group; it may or may not yield a reliable measure for the second 
group ; it will measure the intelligence of the third group. 

Group 1 should be given Beta only; group 3 should be given Alpha 
(but not Beta unless the score earned in Alpha was beloAv D) ; group 
2 should be given both Alpha and Beta in order that men making be- 
low D in Alpha because of language difficulty may have opportunit}^ 
to improve their scores in examination Beta. 

Elxaminers should eliminate at the outset of examination Alpha 
all total illiterates and men who can not understand English, by 
ordering these to stand and to leave the Alpha room. They may then 
be referred to examination Beta. Officers' statements that men can 
not read and write may be used to advantage in making this separa- 
tion. 

After these men have been segregated and the remaining grou]:) 
satisfactorily placed, each man is supplied with a pencil. Then E. 
should say: "We are going to pass around some papers now; don't 
turn any of the pages until I tell you to." Have assistants distribute 
Alpha booklets, face up, making sure that only one is handed to each 
rnan. As soon as the booklets have been distributed E. should con- 
tinue, slowly and distinctly, pausing after each instruction to give 
subjects time to respond: "Now. at the top of the page before you, 
print your name after the word ' Name,' Print your first name first, 
then your middle initial, if any, and then your last name. Take time 
to print very plainly ^^ 

After name has been written, say : " Put your rank in the Army 
after the word ' Rank,' such as private, corporal, sergeant, sergeant 
first class," etc. " Put your age in years. after the word 'Age.' " " In 
the next line write your company, regiment, arm, and division." (E. 
should mention designation of these.) 

" In the next line write the name of the State or country in which 
you were born." "If you were not bom in this country, tell next 
the number of years you have lived in the United States." "After 
'Race' write the word 'White.'" (In examining negro troops 
substitute the word " Negro." If there are Indians in the group, ask 
them, to write the word " Indian." Similarly for Chinese, Japanese, 
Philippinos, etc.) 

" In the next line after ' Occupation,' Avrite your usual work, trade 
or business (such as carpenter, grocery clerk, laborer, farmer, stu- 

11 



12 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

dent)." "Next put down how much you earned a week before you 
entered the Army; not how much a day or a months but how much 
a weeky 

' "After ' Schooling,' draw a line under the highest grade or school 
you attended. For example, if the highest grade you attended was 
the fifth grade, draw a line under Grade 5 ; if you attended the second 
year in the high school or preparatory school, draw a line under 
High School, Year 2, etc." 

After these directions have been given, the orderlies should 
systematically examine the paper of each man to discover his ability 
to carry out the above directions. Those subjects who are unable 
to read and write sufficiently to fill out these headings should be com- 
manded to stand, and. on completion of preliminary survey by ex- 
aminer and his assistants should be ordered to enter examining room 
for examination Beta. 

The above direction is based upon the assumption that a man who 
can not understand the directions given by E., read the words " occu- 
pation," "weekly wages," " schooling," etc., and write the necessary 
replies, can not do justice to himself in examination Alpha. 



III.— GROUP EXAMINATION ALPHA. 



1. PROCEDURE. 



Examination Alpha is to be given to all subjects who remain in the 
room after the elimination of illiterates. In giving the following 
directions E. should speak rather slowly, distinctly, and with proper 
emphasis. He should expect and demand perfect order and prompt 
response to commands. 

When everything is ready E. proceeds as follows: "Attention! The 
purpose of this examination is to see how Avell you can remember, 
think, and carry out what you are told to do. We are not looking for 
crazy people. The aim is to help find out what you are best fitted 
to do in the Army- The grade you make in this examination Avill be 
put on your qualification card and will also go to your company com- 
mander. Some of the things you are told to do will be very eas}^ 
Some you may find hard. You are not expected to make a perfect 
grade, but do the very best you can. 

*' XoAv, in the Army a man often has to listen to commands and then 
carry them out exactly. I am going to give you some commands to 
see how well you can carry them out. Listen closely. Ask no ques- 
tions. Do not watch any other man to see what he does. 

''Look at your papers. Just below where you have been writing, 
there are several sets of forms — circles, triangles, and so forth. First 
you Avill be told to do something with the circles at 1, afterwards with 
the circles at 2, and so on. 

" When I call 'Attention,' stop instantly whatever you are doing 
and hold your pencil up — so. Don't put your pencil down to the 
paper until I say ' Go.' (Examiner lowers his pencil.) Listen care- 
fully to Avhat I say. Do just Avhat you are told to do. As soon as you 
are through, pencils up. Remember, wait for the word ' Go.' " 

N. B. ExaTTbiner. — Give the folloAving instructions very distinctly 
and at moderate speed. After giving the command "Attention," al- 
ways notice carefully and have orderlies notice Avhether all pencils 
are^ up. Never proceed until they are. This is especially important 
in the beginning. Be careful to use the directions that fit the form 
of Alpha booklet distributed. Be careful not to pause or to drop the 
voice in the course of a compound direction, e. g., in 2, before the 
words " and also." Raise your pencil whenever you say "Attention." 
LoAver it promptly Avhenever you say " Go." 

Test 1, Form 5. 

1. "Attention ! 'Attention ' always means ' Pencils up.' Look at the 
circles at 1. When I say 'go ' but not before, make a cross in the 

14 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



15 



-Go!" (Allow not 



first circle and also a figure 1 in the third circle, 
over 5 seconds.) 

2. "Attention ! Look at 2, where the circles have niunbers in them. 
When I say ' go ' draAv a line from Circle 1 to Circle 4 that will 
pass above Circle 2 and heloiv Circle 3. — Go! " (Allow not over 5 
seconds.) 

3. ''Attention ! Look at the square and triangle at 3. When I say 
' go ' make a cross in the space which is in the triangle but not in the 
square, and also make a figure 1 in the space which is in the triangle 
and in the square. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

4. ''Attention ! Look at 4. When I say ' go ' make a figure 1 in the 
space which is in the circle but not in the triangle or square, and also 
make a figure 2 in the space which is in the triangle and circle, but 
not in the square. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

{N. B, Examiner. — In reading 5, don't pause at the word CIRCLE 
as if ending a sentence. ) 

5. ''Attention ! Look at 5. If a machine gun can shoot more bullets 
a minute than a rifle, then (Avhen I say 'go') put a cross in the 
second circle ; if not, draw a line under the word NO. — Go ! " (Al- 
low not over 10 seconds.) 

6. "Attention ! Look at 6. When I sa.y ' go ' put in the second 
circle the right answer to the question : 'How many months has a 
year? ' In the third circle do nothing, but in the fourth circle put 
any number that is a wrong answer to the question that you have 
just answered correctl}^ — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

7. "Attention ! Look at 7. When I say ' go ' crfyss out the letter 
just before C and also draw a line under the second letter before H. — 
Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

8. "Attention ! Look at 8. Notice the three circles and the three 
words. When I say ' go ' make in the first circle the -first letter of 
the first word ; in the second circle the first letter of the second word, 
and in the third circle the last letter of the third Avord. — Go! " (Al- 
low not over 10 seconds.). 

9. "Attention ! Look at 9. When I say ' go ' cross out each number 
that is more than 20 but less than 30. — Go! " (Allow not over 15 
seconds.) 

10. " Attention ! Look at 10. Notice that the drawing is di- 
vided into five parts. When I say ' go ' put a 3 or a 2 in each of 
the tAvo largest parts and any number between 4 and 7 in the part 
next in size to the smallest part. — Go ! " ( AIIoav not over 15 
seconds.) 

11. "Attention! Look at 11. When I say 'go' draw a line 
through every even number that is not in a square, and also through 
eA^ery odd number that is in a square with a letter. — Go ! " (Allow 
not OA^er 25 seconds.) 

12. "Attention! Look at 12. If 7 is more than 5, then (avIicu 
I say 'go ') cross out the number 6 unless 6 is more than 8, in Avhich 
case draAv a line under the number 7. — Go ! " (AIIoav not OA^er 10 
seconds. ) 

" During the rest of this examination don't turn any page f or- 
Avard or backAvard unless vou are told to. Now turn over the page 
to Test 2." 



16 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 

Test 1, Form 6. 

1. " Attention ! ' Attention ' always means ' Pencils up.' Look 
at the circles at 1. When I say ' go ' but not before, make a cross 
in the second circle and also a figure 1 in the third circle. — Go ! " 
(Allow not over 5 seconds.) 

2. '* Attention ! Look at 2, where the circles have numbers in 
them. When I say ' go ' draw a line from Circle 2 to Circle 5 that 
will pass above Circle 3 and heloio Circle 4. — Go!" (Allow not 
over 5 seconds.) 

3. "Attention ! Look at the square and triangle at 3. When 
T say ' go ' make a cross in the space which is in the square but not 
in the triangle, and also make a figure 1 in the space which is in the 
triangle and in the square. — Go!*' (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

4. "Attention! Look at 4. When I say ^ go ' make a figure 1 
in the space which is in the triangle but not in the circle or square, 
and also make a figure 2 in the space which is in the square and 
circle, but not in the triangle. — Go ! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

(N. B. Exaoniner. — In reading 5, don't pause at the word CIR- 
CLE as if ending a sentence.) 

5. " Attention ! Look at 5. If a regiment is bigger than a com- 
pany, then (wdien I say 'go') put a cross in the first circle; if not, 
draw a line under the word NO. — Go ! " ( AIIoav not over 10 sec- 
onds.) 

6. " Attention ! Look at 6. When I sa^^ ' go ' put in the second 
circle the right answer to the question : ' How many months has a 
year ? ' In the fourth circle do nothing, but in the fifth circle put 
any number that is a wrong answer to the question that you just an- 
swered correctly. — Go;" (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

7. " Attention ! Look at 7. When I say ' go ' cross out the letter 
just before D and also draw a line under the second letter before I. — 
Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

8. " Attention ! Look at 8. Notice the three circles and the three 
words. When I say ' go ' make in the first circle the last letter of the 
iirst word ; in the second, circle the last letter of the second word and 
in the third circle the third letter of the third word. — Go ! " (Allow 
not over 10 seconds.) 

9. " Attention ! Look at 9. When I say ' go ' cross out each num- 
ber that is more than 30 but less than 40. — Go ! " (Allow not over 15 
seconds.) 

10. " Attention ! Look at 10. Notice that the drawing is divided 
into five parts. When I say 'go ' put a 3 or a 2 in each of the two 
smallest parts and any number between 4 and 7 in the part next in 
size to the largest part. — Go ! " (Allow not over 15 seconds.) 

11. '• Attention ! Look at 11. When I say ' go ' draw a line through 
every odd number that is not in a circle and also through every odd 
number that is in a circle with a letter. — Go! " (Allow not over 25 
seconds.) 

12. "Attention! Look at 12. If 6 is more than 4, then (when ] 
say ' go ') cross out the number 5 unless 5 is more than 7, in which 
case draw a line under the number 6. — Go!" (Allow not over 10 
seconds.) 

" During the rest of this examination don't turn any page forward 
or backward unless you are told to. Now turn over the page to 
Test 2." 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 17 

Test 1, Form 7. 

1. "Attention! 'Attention' always means ' Pencils up.* Look at 
the circles at 1. When I say ' go ' but not before, make a figure 1 in 
the first circle and also a cross in the third circle. — Go I " (Allow 
not over 5 seconds.) 

2. " Attention ! Look at 2, where the circles have numbers in 
them. When I say * go ' draw a line from Circle 8 to Circle G that 
will pass above Circle 4 and below Circle 5. — Go! '' (Allow not over 
o seconds.) 

3. "Attention! Look at the square and triangle at 8. When I 
say 'go' nuike a figure 1 in the space which is in the triangle but 
not in the square, and also make a cross in the s])ace Avhich is in 
the triangle and in the square. — (to ! *' (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

4. " Attention ! Look at 4. When I say ' go ' make a figure 1 in 
the space which is in the s(]uare but not in the circle or triangle, 
and also make a figure 2 in the space which is in the circle and tri- 
angle, but not in the square. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

{N. B. Examiner. — In reading 5, don't pause at the Avord CIR- 
CLE as if ending a sentence.) 

5. "Attention! Look at 5. If a battleship is larger than a sub- 
marine, then (Avhen I say 'go') put a cross in the third circle: if 
not, draAv a line under the word XO. — (to!'' (AIIoav not over 10 
seconds.) 

6. " Attention ! Look at (>. When I say ' go ' put in the first 
circle the right answer to the questi(m : " How many months has a 
year?' In the third circle do nothing, but in the fourth circle put 
any number that is a Avrong answer to the (]uestion that you just 
answered correctly. — Go! " (AIIoav not OA'er 10 seconds.) 

7. "Attention! Look at 7. When I say. ' go ' ctohs out the let- 
ter just before E and also draAv a line under the second letter be- 
fore H. — Go! " (AlloAv not oA^er 10 seconds.) 

8. " Attention ! Look at 8. Notice the three circles and the three 
Avords. When I say ' go ' make in the frst circle the first letter of 
the ^r.s't Avord; in the second circle the secotul letter of the second 
Avord, and in the third circle the last letter of the last Avord. — (to ! " 
(AlloAv not over 10 seconds.) 

9. " x\ttention ! Look at J). When I say ' go ' cross out each num- 
ber that is more than 40 but less than 50. — Go! '' (Allow not over 
15 seconds.) 

10. "Attention! Look at 10. Xotice that the drawing is di- 
vided into five parts. When I say ' go ' put a 4 or a 5 in each of 
the tAvo smallest parts and any number betAveen G and 1) in the i^art 
next in size to the largest part. — Go!" (AIIoav not over 15 sec- 
onds. ) 

11. " Attention ! Look at 11. When I say 'go' draAv a line 
through every eA^en number that is not in a circle and also through 
every odd number that is in a circle Avith a letter. — Go!" (AHoav 
not over 25 seconds.) 

12. "Attention! Look at 12. If 5 is more than 3, then (when I 
say 'go') cross out the number 4 unless 4 is more than 6, in Avhich 
case draw a line under the number 5. — Go!" (Allow not over 10 
seconds.) 

72219—18 2 



18 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

'" During the rest of this examination don't turn any page back- 
ward or forward unless you are told to. Noav turn over the page to 
Test 2." 

Test 1, Form 8. 

1. ''Attention ! 'Attention ' always means ' Pencils up." Look at 
the circles at 1. AVhen I sa}^ ' go ' but not before, make a figure 2 in 
the second circle and also a cross in the third circle. — Go ! " (Allow 
not over 5 seconds.) 

2. "Attention ! Look at 2, where the circles have numbers in them. 
When I say ' go ' draw a line from Circle 1 to Circle 4 that will pass 
helow Circle 2 and above Circle 3. — Go ! " (Allow not over 5 
seconds. ) 

3. ''Attention ! Look at the sqiuire and triangle at 3. When I 
say ' go ' make a figure 1 in the space which is in the square but not 
in the triangle, and also make a cross in the space which is in the 
triangle and in the square. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

4. "Attention ! Look at 4. When I say ' go ' make a figure 2 in 
the space wdiich is in the circle but not in the triangle or square, and 
also make a figure 3 in the space which is in the triangle and circle, 
but not in the square. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

{N. B. Examiner. — In reading 5, don't pause at the word CIRCLE 
as if ending a sentence.) 

5. "Attention ! Look at 5. If taps sound in the evening, then 
(when I say 'go') put a cross in the first circle; if not, draw a line 
under the word NO. — Go ! '' (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

6. "Attention ! Look at G. When I say ' go ' put in the first circle 
the right answer to the question: 'How many months has a year?' 
In the second circle do nothing, but in the fifth circle put any num- 
ber that is a wrong answer to the question that you just answered cor- 
rectly. — Go! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

7. "Attention ! Look at 7. When I say ' go ' c/ym-.s- out the letter 
just after F and also draw a line under the second letter after 
i. — Go ! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

8. "Attention ! Look at 8. Notice the three circles and the three 
words. When I say ' go ' make in the first circle the laM letter of the 
first word; in the second circle the midclle letter of the second word 
and in the third circle the first letter of the third word. — Go! " (Al- 
low not over 10 seconds.) 

9. "Attention! Look at 1). When I say 'go' cvohs out each num- 
ber that is more than 50 but less than ()0.^Go ! '' (Alh)w not over 15 
seconds.) 

10. "Attention ! Look at 10. Notice that the drawing is divided 
into five parts. Wlien I say 'go' i)ut a 4 or a 5 in each of the two 
hirgest parts and any number between G and 9 in the i)art next in 
size to tlie smallest part. — -(xo! '' (Allow not over 15 seconds.) 

11. "Attention ! Look at 11. When I say ' go ' draw a line through 
every odd number that is not in a scjuare, and also through every odd 
number that is in a scjuai-e with a letter. — (lo! " (Allow not over 25 
seconds.) 

12. "Attention ! Look at 12. If 4 is more than 2, then (when I 
say 'go') cross out the numbei- 3 unless 3 is more than 5, in which 
case draw a line under the number 4. — Go!'' (x\llow not over 10 
seconds.) 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY 



19 



" Diii'ino- tile rest of this exainination don't turn <inv |)a<>e forward 
or backward unless you are told to. Now turn over the i)a<>e to Test '2." 

Test 1, Form 9. 

1. ''Attention I 'Attention* alwa3'S means 'Pencils u])/ Look at 
the circles at 1. AVhen I sav ' go,' but not before, make a cross in the 
first circle and also a figure 1 in the last circle. — (lo I '* (Allow not 
over 5 seconds.) 

2. "Attention ! Look at 2, where the circles have numbers in them. 
AVhen I say 'go' draw a line from Circle 2 to Circle 5 that will i)ass 
heloir Circle 8 and ahorv Circle 4. — (to!" (Allow not over 5 sec- 
onds. ) 

8. ''Attention I Look at the square and triangle at o. AA'hen I say 
'go' make a figure 2 in the space which is in the triangle but not in 
the scjuare, and also make a figure 8 in the space which is in the stjuare 
and in the triangle. — (to! ■' (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

4. "Attention ! Look at 4. When I say ' go ' make a figure 2 in 
the space which is in the triangle but not in the circle or scjuare, and 
also make a figure 3 in the space which is in the s({uare and circle, but 
not in the triangle. — Co! " (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

(iV. B. ErK'cnnincr. — In reading 5, don't pause at the word CIRCLE 
as if ending a sentence.) 

T). "Attention! Look at T). If a captain is superior to a corporal. 
then (when I say 'go') put a cross in the second circle ; if not, draw 
a line under the word NO. — Co ! ■' (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

6. "Attention! Look at (>. AVhen I say 'go' pnt in the third cir- 
cle the right answer to the question : ' Hoav many months has a year? ' 
In the fourth circle do nothing, l:nt in the fifth circle i)ut any number 
that is a wrong answer to the question that you just answered cor- 
rectly. — Go!" (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

7. " Attention ! Look at 7. "When I say ' go ' ci-o^x out the letter 
just after (x and also dra^v a line under the second letter after H. — 
Go ! '' (Allow^ not over 10 seconds.) 

8. " Attention ! Look at 8. Notice the three circles and the three 
words. When I say 'go' make m the frsf circle the third letter of 
the first word; in the second circle i\w frst letter of the second word 
and in the third circle the frst letter of the third word. — (to ! " ( Al- 
loAv not over 10 seconds.) 

9. "Attention! Look at 9. When I say 'go 'cross out each 
number that is more than ()0 but less than 70. — (to ! " (Allow not 
over 15 seconds.) 

10. "Attention! Look at 10. Notice that the drawing is divided 
into five parts. When I say ' go ' put a 2 or a 8 in each of the two 
largest parts and any number between and 9 in the part next in size 
to the smallest part. — (to! " (Allow not over 15 seconds.) 

11. "Attention! Look at 11. When I say 'go' draw a line 
through every even number that is not in a s(]uare, and also through 
every odd number that is in a square Avith a letter. — (Jo!'' (Allow 
not over 25 seconds.) 

12. "Attention! Look at 12. If 3 is more than 1. then (when I 
say 'go') cross out the number 2 unless 2 is more than 4, in which 
case draw^ a line under the number 3. — Go!" (Allow not over 10 
seconds.) 



20 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

"During the rest of this examination don't turn any page for- 
ward or backward unless you are told to. Now turn over the page to 
Test 2." 

Test 2. — Arithmetical Problems. 

" Attention ! Look at the directions at the top of the page while 
I read them. * Get the answers to these examples as quickly as you 
can. Use the side of this page to figure on if you need to.' I will 
say stop at the end of five minutes. You rnay not be able to finish 
all of them, but do as many as 3^ou can in the time allowed. The two 
samples are alreadv answered correctly. — Ready — Go ! " 

After 5 minutes', say " STOP ! Turn over the page to Test 3." 

Test 3. — Practical Judgment. 

" Attention ! Look at the directions at the top of the page while I 
read them. 

" ' This is a test of common sense. Below^ are sixteen questions. 
Three answers are given to each question. You ar.e to look at the 
answers .carefully; then make a cross in the square before the hest 
answer to each question, as in the sample: 

"Why do we use stoves? Because 

Dthey look well 

E they keep us warm 

□ they are black 

" Here the second answer is the best one and is marked with a 
cross. 

" Begin with Xo. 1 and keep on until time is called.' — Ready — 
Go!" After IVi minutes, sav "STOP! Turn over the page to 
Test 4." 

Test 4. — Synonym — Antonym. 

" Attention ! Look at the directions at the top of the page w^hikj 
I read them." (E. reads slowly.) 

" ^ If the two words of a pair mean the same or nearly the same 
draw a line under same. If they mean the opposite or nearly the 
opposite, draw a line under opposite. If you can not be sure, guess. 
The tw^o samples are alreadv marked as they should be.' — Ready — 
Go!" 

After Vh minutes, say " STOP ! Tiu-n over the page to Test 5." 
(Pause.) " Xow you have to turn your books around this way." 
(Examiner ilhistrates the necessary rotation.) 

Test 5. — Disarranged Sentences. 

'* Attention ! Look at the directions at the top of the page while I 
read them." (E. reads slowly.) 

" ' The words a eats cow grass in that order are mixed up and 
don't make a sentence; but they would make a sentence if put in 
the right order : a cow eats grass^ and this statement is true. 

" Again, the words horses feathers have all would make a sen- 
tence if put in the order all horses have feathers^ but this state- 
ment is false. 

" Below are 24 mixed-up sentences. Some of them are true and 
some are false. When I say ' go,' take these sentences one at a time. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 21 

Think what each would say if the words Avere straightened ont, hut 
don't write them yourself. Then, if Avhat it would say is true (h'a\y 
a line under the word 'true;' if what it would say is false, draw 
a line under the word ' false.' If you can not he sui'e. guess. The 
two samples are already marked as they shoukl be. Begin with 
No. 1 and work right down the page until time is called.' — Readv — 
Go!" 
After 2 minutes, say " STOP ! Turn over the page to Test 6." 

Test 6. — Number Series Completion. 

(A^. B. Exammiev. — Give these instructions very slowly.) 

"Attention ! Look at the first sample row of figures at the top of 
the page — 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12; the two numbers that should come next 
are, of course, 14, 16. 

" Look at the second sample^9, 8, T, 6, 5, 4; the two numbers that 
should come next are 3, 2. 

" Look at the third sample — 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4; the two numbers that 
should come next are 5, 5. 

" Now look at the fourth sample — 1, 7, 2, 7, 3, 7 ; the next two num- 
bers Avould, of course, be 4, 7. 

" Look at each row of numbers below, and on the two dotted lines 
write the two numbers that should come next. — Readv — Go I " 

After 3 minutes, say " STOP ! Turn over the page to Test 7." 

Test 7. — Analogies. 

"Attention ! Look at the first sample at the top of the page : Sky — 
blue : : grass — table, green^ w^arm, big. 

" Notice the four words in heavy type. One of them — green — is 
underlined. Grass is green just as the sky is blue. 

"Look at the second sample: Fish — swims :: man — paper, time, 
%oalhs^ girl. 

" Here the Avord umlks is underlined. A man Avalks and a fish 
sAvims. 

" Look at the third sample : Day — night : : Avhite — red, hlach^ clear, 
pure. 

" Here the Avord hlach is underlined because black is the opposiUi 
of Avhite just as night is the opposite of day. 

" In each of the lines beloAv the first tAvo Avords are related to each 
other in some Avay. What you are to do in each line is to see Avhat 
the relation is between the first tA\^o Avords, and underline the Avord 
in heavy type that is related in the same way to the third Avord. Be- 
gin with No. 1 and mark as many sets as you can before time is 
called. — Readv — Go ! " 

After 3 minutes, say " STOP! Turn over the page to Test 8." 

Test 8. — Information. 

"Attention ! Look at the directions at the top of the page while I 
read them." (E. reads sloAvly.) 

" ' Notice the sample sentence : People hear Avith the — eyes — ears — 
nose — mouth. The correct Avord is ears^ because it makes the truest 
sentence. In eaoh of the sentences beloAV you have four choices for 



22 . PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

the last AYorcl. Only one of them is correct. In each sentence cl^a^Y a 
line under the one of these four words >Yhich makes the truest sen- 
tence. If YOU can not be sure, guess. The two samples are already 
marked as they should be.' — Ready — Go 1 '' 

After 4 minutes, say " STOP I Turn oYer the page to Test 1 again. 
In the upper right hand corner, where it says ' Group No. — -,' put the 
number 101 " (or 102, 103, etc., according to the number of this 
group in the examiner's series of groups) . 

HaYe all examination booklets and pencils collected immediately 
and before the men are allowed to leaYe their seats. Before dismiss- 
ing the group, the number of booklets collected should be carefully 
checked with the number of men present and the number of booklets 
issued. 



2. DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING. 



General Rules. 



1. Each item is scored either right or wrong. No part credits are 
given. 

2. In general, items evidently corrected stand as corrected. 

3. In tests where the score is ^' Number Right,'- only wrong items 
need be checked in scoring. In Tests 4 and 5, where the score is 
'' Rie:ht minus Wrong," wrong and omitted items must be Separatel}^ 
checked. 

4. Indicate the last item attempted by drawing a long line under, 
that item and out into the margin. 

5. Enter the score for each test in lower right-hand corner of the 
test page and encircle it. When the test has been re-scored, a check 
mark may be made beside the circle. 

6. Red or blue pencil increases accuracy of scoring. 

Test 1. 

(Score is number right.) 

1. No credit is given for any item in which more is done than the 
instructions require. 

2. In an item where something is to be written " m " a given space, 
give credit if a mark crosses a line from haste or awkwardness; give 
no credit if the position is really ambiguous. 

8. Where something is to be underlined or crossed out, give credit 
if two or three underlinings are made in the required ])lace, and give 
credit for any method of crossing out. 

4. Item 2. — The pencil line must begin and end either on the cir- 
cumference or within the circles indicated. It may touch the inter- 
mediate circles, but must not cut through them. 

5. Item 6. — In the circle marked " not 12 " there must be some num- 
ber which is not 12, such as 5, 0, 27. 

6. Item 9. — The proper numbers must be crossed out to receive 
credit. 

7. Item 10. — In Form 5, " 2 " alone and " 3 " alone, but not " 2 or 
3," in each of the two largest parts; "5" alone and "6'' alone, but 
not " 5 or 6." in the next to the smallest part, are correct. Similarly 
for other forms. 

8. Item 11. — The lines must cross, or at least touch, the proper 
numbers; they may or may not cut the accompanying letters. Mere 
indication of the square, triangle, etc., is not sufficient. 

9. Item 12. — Underlining in place of crossing out is wrong. 

23 



24 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 

Test 2. 

(Score is number right.) 

1. Answer may be written on dotted line or elsewhere near its 
problem. 

'2. If two answers are given to any problem, count as wrong. 

3. If it seems clear that, by a slip, one answer has been put in the 
Avrong brackets, and the next answers are all thus misplaced, give 
credit for the answers that are right even if misplaced. 

4. Omission of dollar sign is permissible. 

5. Omission of decimal point is permissible in items 2. 9, 13. and 
14. Fraction may be expressed as decimal in item 15. 

Test 3. 

(Score is number right.) 

1. Any clear method of indicating answer is given full credit — 
miderlining, checking, etc. 

2. If two answers are marked, count as wrong unless one is clearly 
indicated as final. 

Test 4. 

(Score is number right minus number wrong.) 

1. Any clear method of indicating answer is given credit. 

2. When both '' Same '* and '* Opposite " are underlined, counts as 
omitted^ not as wrong. 

3. If only '' Same ■• is underlined right down the column, score for 
the test is zero. Similarly if " Opposite *' is underlined right down 
the column. 

Test 5o 

(Score is number right minus number wrong.) 
Same rules as for Test 4. 

Test 6. 

(Score is number right.) 

1. If only one number is written, give no credit. 
2- If only one of the numbers is right, give no credit. 
3. If four numbers are written, as frequently happens witli cei-- 
tain items (i. e., 33, 11 instead of 3. 3). give full credit. 

Test 7. 

(Score is number right.) 

1. Any clear indication other than underlining receives full credit. 

2. I^nderlining of any of the first three words of an item does not 
remove credit. 

3. If two or more of the last four words are marked, give no 
credit. 



Test 8. 



(Score is number right.) 
Same rules as for Test 7. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 25 

3. TOTAL SCORE AND RATING. 

The result of examination Al})ha is expressed in a total score wliicli 
is the sum of the raw scores of the several tests. The raw scores are 
obtained as follows: 



Test. 


Method of 


Maximum 


scoring. 


raw score. 


1... 




■R 


12 


2... 


j____._ 


R 


20 


3... 




R 


16 


4... 




R-W 


40 


5... 




R-W 
R 


24 
20 


6... 




7.-- 




R 
R 


40 
40 


8 




Total 


212 







Letter ratings are assigned on examination Alpha as follows: 



Rating. 


Score. 


A 


135-212 
105-134 
75-104 
45- 74 
25- 44 
15- 24 
0- 14 


B 


C+ 


c 


c- 


D 


D-i 





1 Recalled for further examination. 



All ratings above D— are entered and reported at once. Men 
whose scores are below D are recalled for examination Beta. Katings 
of D— may not be given in Alpha, unless recall of the men for Beta 
is impossible. 



IV.— GROUP EXAMINATION BETA. 



1. DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING UP APPARATUS. 

Beta materials are shipped in three packages. 

1. Blackboard frame. 

2. Blackboard chart. 

3. (a) Cardboard pieces for Test T; (h) patterns for con- 

structing cubes for Test 2. 

The hlackhoard frame consists of 8 fitted sections, 2 uprights which 
carry 2 rollers and 4 crossbars which are attached to the small cross- 
pieces of the uprights. The blackboard should be set up so that the 
ends of the rollers to which the crank may be fitted come on the right- 
hand side. A piece of beaver board 30 by 40 inches should be nailed 
to the crossbars so as to give a rigid writing surface. This must be 
procured in the camps. 

The hlackhoard chart is a continuous roll 27 feet long. Care 
should be used in attaching chart to rollers so that it will wind 
evenly. The chart must be kept as clean as possible at all times. The 
painting should be gone over from time to time with a white gloss 
paint. 

The patterns for construct Ing cuhes for test 2 should be drawn on 
heavy cardboard on a scale such that the constructed model will ap- 
pear to be made from 3-inch cubes. All cube edges, either real or 
imaginary, should be bordered in lines ^-inch thick painted with 
india ink. The models should be cut on the full lines and folded 
on the dotted lines as indicated in the patterns furnished. For these 
cube models a sloping shelf should be so arranged that the per- 
spective from the center of the room will be the same as that of the 
models represented on the blackboard. 

Chalk, eraser, pointer, and n curtain for covering Beta apparatus 
are also necessary. 

2. PROCEDURE. 

It is most important that examination Beta be given in a genial 
manner. The. subjects who take this examination sometimes sulk 
and refuse to work. E. and his assistants will find it necessary 
to fill out most of the headings for the men before the examination 
begins. The time required for this preparatory work may be used 
to advantage in making the men feel at ease. As the demonstration 

27 



28 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

preparatory to each test requires some time, the '' pencils up " com- 
mand is omitted in examination Beta. The examiner's platform 
should be so high that he can readily see whether or not the subjects 
are AYorking. Great care should be taken to prevent the over- 
anxious from beginning Avork before the command " Go." 

Seating conditions should be such that subjects can not copy from 
one another and the rule that copying shall not be allowed should 
be enforced strictly. The blackboard should at all times be kept 
clean so that the visual conditions may be excellent and constant. 
The blackboard figures for Test 1 should be exposed when the sub- 
jects enter the examining room. As soon as a test has been demon-' 
strated and the men have been told to go ahead, the blackboard 
should be covered and kept covered until time is called. It 
should not be turned to the next test until the men have been ordered 
to stop work on a given test. Care should- be taken to have the 
physical conditions of examination reasonably uniform. 

With the exception of the brief introductory statements and a few 
orders, instructions are to be given throughout by means of ges- 
tures instead of w^ords. These gestures accompany the samples and 
demonstrations and should be animated and emphatic. 

It is absolutely necessary that directions be followed closely and 
procedui'e kept uniform and definite. Variations of procedure are 
more likely to occur in Beta than in Alpha, and there is serious risk 
that if alloAved thev Avill lessen the A^alue of results. E. should 
especialh^ guard against using more or fewer gestures or words for 
one group than for another. Oral language should be rigidly lim- 
ited to the words and phrases given in the procedure for the differ- 
ent tests. 

Whether the men get the idea of the test and enter into it Avith the 
proper spirit Avill depend chiefly on the skill Avith Avhich the ex- 
aminer, the demonstrator, and the orderlies carry out their re- 
spective parts. Examiner and demonstrator especially should be 
selected Avith the greatest care. An examiner Avho succeeds admir- 
ably in giving Alpha may prove to be entirely unadapted for Beta. 
Both examiner and demonstrator must be adept in the use of gesture 
language. In the selection of a demonstrator the Personnel Office 
should be consulted. One camp has had great success Avith a '' Avin- 
doAv seller" as demonstrator. Actors should also be considered for 
the Avork. The orderlies should be able to keep the subjects at 
Avork without antagonizing them and to keep them encouraged Avith- 
out actually helping them. 

The demonstrator should have the single ta^sk of doing before the 
group just what the group is later to do with the examination hlanks. 
The blackboard is his Beta blank. Before examination Beta can be 
given satisfactorily the demonstrator must be letter perfect in his 
part. Both E. and demonstrator must be A^ery careful to stand at the 
side of the blackboard in order not to hide the drawings. 

As soon as the men of a group have been properly seated, pencils 
should be distributed and also examination blanks with Test 8 up. 
While this is being done E. should say " Here are some papers. 
You must not open them or turn them over until you are told to," 
Holding up Beta blank, E. continues : , 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY, 



29 



" In the place where it says name, write your name; print it if you 
can. (Pause.) Fill out the rest of the blank about your age, school- 
ing, etc., as well as you can. If you have any trouble we will help 
you." (The instructions given under segregation may be used for 
filling out the Beta blank.) E. should announce the group number 
and see that it as well as the other necessary information is sup- 
plied. Before the examination proceeds each paper should be in- 
spected in order to make sure that it is satisfactorily com])leted. 

After the initial information has been obtained, E. makes the fol- 
lowing introductory remarks : 

''^Attention! Watch this man (pointing to demonstrator). lie 
(pointing to demonstrator again) is going to do here (tapping black- 
board with pointer), what you (pointing to different members of 
group) are to do on your pafers (here E. points to several papers 
that lie before men in the group, picks np one, holds it next to the 
blackboard, returns the paper, points to demonstrator and the black- 
board in succession, then to the men and their papers). Ask no ques- 
tions. Wait till I say ' Go ahead ! ' " 

In general, when instructing the group to turn from test to test, E. 
holds up a Beta blank before group and follows his own instruc- 
tions as he gives them. As soon as he has turned to desired test or 
2)age he says, "This is test X here; look! " (pointing to the page). 

To suggest to the group the necessity of Avorking rapidly the 
demonstrator, after proceeding very deliberately with the early sam- 
ples of each test, hurries, as soon as he has worked out the last sam- 
ple problem 

(1) to record his response as fast as he can; 

(2) then to catch E.'s eyes for approval and 

(3) finally, to slip away from blackboard, drawing curtain as 
he does so. 

After the personal data called for on page 1 of blank have been 
gathered and recorded, the orderlies' A^ocabulary in Beta is rigidW 
restricted to the following words, or their literal equivalents in 
Italian, Russian, etc.: Yes, N^o, Sure, Good, Quick, How inany? 
Same, Fix it. Under no circumstances may substitutional explana- 
tions or directions be given. 

Test 1. — Maze. 



" Now turn your papers over. This is Test 1 here (pointing to page 
of record blank). Look." After all have found the page, E. con- 
tinues, " Don't make any marks till I say ' Go ahead.' Now watch.'''' 
After touching both arrows, E. traces through first maze with pointer 
and then motions the demonstrator to go ahead. Demonstrator traces 
path through first maze %i^ith crayon, slowly and hesitatingly. E. 
then traces second maze and motions to demonstrator to go ahead. 
Demonstrator makes one mistake by going into the blind alley at 
upper left-hand corner of maze. E. apparently does not notice what 
demonstrator is doing until he crosses line at end of alley; then E. 
shakes his head vigorously, says "No — no." takes demonstrator's 
hand and traces back to the place where he may start right again. 
Demonstrator traces rest of maze so as to indicate an attempt at 



30 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMIXIXG IX THE AEMY. 

haste, hesitating only at ambiguous points. E- saj^s '^ Good." Then, 
holding up blank. " Look here," and draws an imaginary line across 
the page from left to right for every maze on the page. Then, "All 
right. Go ahead. Do it (pointing to men and then to books) . H-urry 
up.'' The idea of working fast must be impressed on the men during 
the maze test. E. and orderlies walk around the room, motioning to 
men who are not working, and saying. " Do it. do it. hurry up, quick." 
At the end of 2 minutes E. savs, " Stop I Turn over the page to 
Test '2r 

Test 2. — Cube Analysis. 

•' This is Test '2 here. Look." After everyone has found the page — 
•• Xow watch." The order of procedure is as follows : 

(1) E. points to the three-cube model on the blackboard, making a 
rotary movement of the pointer to embrace the entire picture. 

(2) With similar motion he points to the three-cube model on shelf. 
(8) E. points next to picture on blackboard and asks. ** How much i " 

(4) E. turns to cube model and counts aloud, putting up his fin- 
gers while so doing, and encouraging the men to count with him. 

(5) E. taps each cube on the blackboard and motions to demon- 
strator, asking him *' How much i " 

(6) Demonstrator (pointing) counts cubes on blackboard silently 
and writes the figure 3 in proper ])laee. 

In the second sample of this test, when E. counts cubes of model he 

(1) counts the three exposed cubes: 

(2) touches the unexposed cube with pointer: and 

(3) without removing pointer turns model, so that hidden cube 

comes into vieAv of group. In other respects procedure 
with second and third samples is the same as with first. 

In counting the 12-cube model, E. (1) counts the top row of cubes 
in the model (left to right). (2) counts the exposed bottom row 
(right to left). (3) taps with pointer the end cube of hidden row. 
(4) turns the entire ^nodel around and completes his counting. E. 
then holds model in same plane as drawing and counts (in the same 
order as above) the cubes on blackboard, counting lines between 
front and top row as representing the hidden row. He then asks 
demonstrator •' How much i " Demonstrator counts the cubes on 
1)lackboard (pointing but not speaking) and writes the response. 

Throughout the demonstration the counting is done deliberately, 
not more rapidly than one cube per second. 

At end of demonstration E. points to page and says, ^"^All right. 
Go ahead." At the end of 2'/2 minutes he says, '' Stop I Look at me 
and don't turn the page." 

Test 3.— X-0 Series. 

*• This is Test 3 here. Look." After everyone has found the 
page — '' Now watch.-' E. first points to the blank rectangles at the 
end. then traces each " O " in chart, then traces outline of " 0*s " in 
remaining spaces. Demonstrator, at a gesture, draws them in. E. 
then traces first '' X " in next sample, moves to next "- X "' by tracing 



PSYCHOJ.OGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



31 



the arc of an imaginary semicircle joining tlie two, and in the same 
manner traces each " X," moving over an arc to the next. He then 
traces ontlines of ^'X's" in the proper bhmk s]-)aces. moving over 
the imaginary arc in each case, and motions to demonsti'ator to diaw 
them in. Demonstrator, at a gestnre, fills in remaining problems 
very slowly, standing well to the right of the blackboai'd and wi*iting 
Avith his left hand. E. points to page and says, "All right, (jo ahead. 
Hurry up! " At end of IVi minutes he says, " Stoj) I Turn o^■er 
the page to Test 4." 

Test 4.— Digit-Symbol. 

"This is Test 4 //ryv^. Look.'' After every one lias found the 
page — "Now Avatch.'' E. points to first digit of key on blackboard 
and then points to the symbol imder it. Same for all nine digits in 
key. E. then (1) points to first digit of sample. (2) to the emi)ty 
space beloAv digit, (8) points to corresponding digit of key. (4) 
points to proper symbol under digit in key, and (5) traces the out- 
line of the proper symbol in the blank space under the digit in the 
sample. Same for first fiA^e samples. Demonstrator, at a gestnre, 
fills in all the samples, Avorking as folloAvs: (1) Touches the number 
in first sample Avith index finger of right hand; (2) holding finger 
there, finds Avith index finger of left hand the corresponding number 
in key; (3) drops index finger of left hand to symbol for number 
found; (4) holding left hand in this position Avrites ai:)]>i'opriate 
symbol in the loAver half of sample. 

Similarly Avith the other samples. While Avoi'king, demonstrator 
should stand as far as possible to the left, doing all the samples fi'om 
this side. 

At the end of demonstration E. says, "Look, here" and ])oints 
to key on page, repeating the gestures used in pointing on the black- 
board at the beginnino' of the demonstration. Then. "All right. 
Go ahead. Hu.rry up ! '' Orderlies point out key to men Avho are at 
a loss to find it. At the end of 2 minutes, E. says, " Stop I r>ut 
don't turn the page." 

Test 5. — Number Checking. 

"This is Test 5 here. Look." After every one has found the 
l)age. " NoAv Avatch." In this demonstration E. must try to get 
" Yes '' or " No " responses from the group. Tf the wrong response 
is Aolunteered bv group. E. points to digits again and gives right 
response, "Yes" or " No " as the case may be. E. points to first 
digit of first number in left cohmm, then to first digit first number 
in right column, then to second digit first number in left colunni 
and second digit first munber in right coluiun. nods head, says 
"Yes" and makes an imaginary cross at end of munber in I'iglit 
column. Motions to demonstrator, Avho nuikes an *' X " there. E. 
does the same for second line of figures, but here he indicates clearly 
by shaking head and saying "no" that certain digits are not identi- 
cal. E. repeats for three more sets and after each, looks at group, 
says "Yes?" in questioning tone and Avaits for them to say "Yes" 



32 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

or " Xo." He repeats correct reply with satisfaction. Demon- 
strator diecks each after group has responded, or at signal from E. 
if group does not respond. Demonstrator then Avorks out remaining 
items, pointing from column to column and workinor deliberately. E. 
summarizes demonstrator's Avork by -pointing to the Avhole numbers 
in each set and saying "" Yes" (indicating X) or ''No;" if ''No," he 
shoAYs again where the numbers are unlike. E. then points to page 
and says "All right. Go ahead. Hurry up ! " At the end of 3 min- 
utes E. says " Stop. Turn over the page to Test G." 

Test 6. — Pictorial Completion. 

"This is Test G here. Look. A lot of pictures." After every 
one has found the page, " Now Avatch." E. points to hand and 
says to demonstrator. " Fix it." Demonstrator does nothing, but 
looks puzzled. E. points to the picture of the hand, then to the 
place Avhere finger is missing and says to demonstrator, "Fix it; Fix 
it." Demonstrator then draAvs in finger. E. says, " That's right." 
E. then points to fish and place for eye and says, " Fix it." After 
demonstrator has draAvn missing eye, E. points to each of the four 
remaining draAvings and says, " Fix them all." Demonstrator Avorks 
samples out sloAvly and Avith apparent effort. When the samples 
are finished E. says, "All right. Go ahead. Hurry up! " During 
the course of this test the orderlies Avalk around the room and locate 
individuals Avho are doing nothing, point to their pages, and say. 
" Fix it. Fix them," trying to set everyone Avorking. At end of 3 
minutes E. says, " Stop ! But don't turn oA^er the page." 

Test 7. — Geometrical Construction. 

" This is Test 7 here. Look." After every one has found the 
page," NoAv Avatch." Examiner points to the first figure on black- 
board. He then takes the tAvo pieces of cardboard, fits them on to 
the similar draAvings (m blackboard to shoAv that they correspond 
and puts them together in the square on blackboard to shoAV that 
they fill it. Then, after running his finger over the line of inter- 
section of the parts, E. removes the pieces and signals demonstrator, 
Avho draAvs solution in the square on bhickboard. The same pro- 
cedure is repeated for the second and third sample. Demonstrator 
Avorks out fourth sample, after much study, pointing from the square 
to the forms. 

Demonstrator first draws the tAvo small squares in the upper half 
of the large square, then the tAvo triangles in the remaining rectangle. 
Each small figure is draAvn in by tracing its entire circumference, not 
merely the necessary dividing lines. While drawing each small figure 
in the large square, demonstrator points Avith index finger of left 
hand to the corresponding small figure at left of square, taking care 
not to obstruct the view. At end of demonstration E. holds up blank, 
points to each square on the page and says, "All right. Go ahead. 
Hurry up ! " At end of 2'/2 minutes, " Stoj) ! Turn over the page." 
Papers are then collected inunediately. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 33 

3. DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING. 



General Rules. 

1. In general, items evidently corrected stand as corrected. The 
only exception to this rule is in the maze test. 

2. In tests where the score is number right, only wrong items need 
be checked in scoring. In Test 5, where the score is right minus 
wrong, wrong and omitted items must be separately checked. 

3. Enter the score for each test in lower right-hand corner of the 
test page and encircle it. When the test has been rescored a check 
may be made beside the circle. 

4. Red or blue pencil increases accuracy of scoring. 

Test 1. 

1. One-half point for each correctl}' completed half of maze. A 
half maze is correct if drawn line does not cross any line of maze 
(except through awkwardness) nor an imaginar}^ straight line across 
the opening of a wrong passage. 

2. Allow^ much leeway in the cutting of corners. 

3. Spur running into any blind passage counts wrong for that 
half -item, even though erased. 

4. When two lines are drawn, one straight across the page, the 
other correct, full credit is given. 



Score is number right. 



Test 2, 



Test 3. 



1. Score is number right. 

2. Any incom])lete item receives no credit. 

3. Count any item correct if intended plan is carried out. Disre- 
gard additional unnecessary marks, such as circles between the crosses 
of items 2 and 4 in first part of line, etc. 

Test 4. 

1. Score is one- third of number of correct symbols. 

2. Use leniency in judging form of symbol. 

3. Credit symbol for 2 even though reversed. 

Test 5. 

1. Score is right minus wrong (number of items checked that 
should be checked minus number of items checked that should not be 
checked). 

2. If other clear indication is used instead of crosses, give credit. 

3. If numbers which should not be checked are marked by some 
other sign than is used to check similar pairs, count as though not 
marked. 

4. If all items are checked, the score for the test is zero. 

72219—18 3 



34 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ABMY. 



Test 6. 

1. Score is number right. 

2. Allow much awkwardness in drawing. Writing in name of 
missing part or any way of indicating it receives credit, if idea is 
clear. 

3. Additional parts do not make item wrong, if proper missing 
part is also inserted. 

4. Rules for individual items : 

IteTTi Jf. — Any spoon at any angle in right hand receives credit. 
Left hand, or unattached spoon, no credit. 

Item 5. — Chimney must be in right place. No credit for smoke. 

Item 6. — : Another ear on same side as first receives no credit. 

Item 8. — Plain square, cross, etc., in proper location for stamp, 
receives credit. 

Item 10. — Missing part is the rivet. Line of " ear " may be 
omitted. 

Item 13. — Missing part is leg. 

Item, 15. — Ball should be drawn in hand of man. If represented in 
hand of woman, or in motion, no credit. 

Item 16. — Single line indicating net receives credit. 

Item- 18. — Any representation intended for horn, pointing in any 
direction, receives credit. 

Item 19. — Hand and powder puff must be put on proper side. 

Item, 20. — Diamond is the missing part. Failure to complete hilt 
on sword is not an error. 

Test 7. 

1. Score is number right. 

2. Allow considerable awkwardness in drawing. 

3. Extra subdivisions, if not erased, make item wrong. 

4. Eules for individual items : 

Item 1. — Line of division may be slightly distant from true cen- 
ter, and need not be straight. 

item. 3. — Lines of semi-circumference must start from or near cor- 
ners of square. 

Ite7}i 4- — Line must not start from corner. 

4. TOTAL SCORE AND RATING. 

The result of examination Beta is expressed as a "total score," 
which is the sum of the raw scores of the several tests. The raw 
scores are obtained as follows: 



Test. 


Method of scoring. 


Maximum 
score. 


1 


Half point for each half maze 

Num})er right 


5 
16 
12 
30 
25 
20 
10 


2 


3 - 


Number right 


4 


One-third of number right 


5 


' ight minus wrong 


6 


Number right 


7 


Numy:)er right 


Total . . . 




118 







PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 35 

Letter ratings are assigned on examination Beta as follows: 



Rating. 


Scores. 


A 


100-118 
90- 99 
80- 89 
65- 79 
45- 64 
20- 44 
0- 19 


B 


C+ 


C 


C- 


D 


D-i 





^ Recalled for individual examination. 



All ratings above D— are entered and reported at once. Men 
whose scores fall below D are recalled for individual examination. 

Ratings of D— may not be given in examination Beta, unless re- 
call of the men for individual examination is impossible. 



^i 



v.— INDIVIDUAL EXAMINATIONS. 

1. GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Purpose. — The main purpose of the individual examination is to 
secure a more accurate measurement of the mental ability of those 
who have made D— in Alpha or Beta, or in both. By the personal 
contact it allows it should also yield vahmble supplementary infor- 
mation of a kind which can not be brought out by a group examina- 
tion. All the kinds of information secured should be considei'ed in 
connection with recommendation concerning a man. 

The suhjects. — Men who are likely to be summoned for individual 
examination fall into three classes — literates^ illiterates^ and non- 
English speaking. Since the procedure of examination varies im- 
portantly^ with the class, the first task of the examiner is to assign the 
man who has reported for individual examination to his proper 
category. The following definitions will assist in the process of 
classifying : 

Literates. — Those Avho have been allowed to take Alpha may ordi- 
narily be considered literate for purpose of individual examination. 
Subjects Avho have not taken Alpha may be considered literate if 
they have completed the third grade (or its equivalent) in an Ameri- 
can school. E. should question S. regarding his opportunities for 
schooling, and if necessar}^ may test his ability to read and write 
English. 

Illiterates are those, who do not meet the above requirements, but 
who understand and speak English fairly well. The subject may be 
highly literate in some language but illiterate in English. Such are 
to be classed as illiterate for the present purpose. 

Non-English-speaking suhjects are those wdio, Avhether foreign 
born or American born, are unable to understand or speak English 
sufficiently well to take an oral examination given in English. The 
majority of such subjects, are foreigners, but many foreigners belong 
in either the literate or the illiterate class instead of in the non- 
English speaking. 

Choice of Exarwination. — Literates should be examined by means 
of the Point Scale or the Stanford-Binet scale according to avail- 
ability of materials and pref erenc'e of the examiner. Usually it will 
not be necessary to give a literate subject further examination, but 
if the examiner is in doubt as to proper rating and reconnnenclation 
concerning subject, he should, after completing examination by the 
one or the other of these scales, supplement his observations by giv- 
ing such performance tests as seem desirable. 

Illiterates should be examined by means of one or more of the fol- 
lowing systematic procedures: ((3^) the Point Scale as adapted for 

37 



38 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

illiterates; (b) the Stanford-Binet scale as adapted for illiterates; 
(c) the Performance Scale with oral instructions. In certain in- 
stances it may be obviously desirable or necessary to use the Perform- 
ance Scale in addition to the one or the other adapted scale. As a 
rule it should be unnecessary to use other than either the .r*oint- Scale 
or Stanford-Binet (complete or adapted) in the case of a subject who 
has attended an American school as much as four or five years. In- 
ability to read and write after that amount of schooling nearly al- 
ways indicates grave mental inferiority, and should not be considered 
an excuse for failure on such tests as writing from dictation, count- 
ing backward, making change, etc. Those who are illiterate from 
complete lack of educational opportunity should be given the per- 
formance scale. 

Non-English-sfeahing subjects can be examined safely only by 
means of the Performance Scale with non-verbal instructions. Those 
subjects who understand English slightly may profit by the use of 
such words as " no," " yes," etc. For this reason words may be used by 
the examiner to supplement his gestures, but they must not be de- 
pended upon as a means of conveying the idea of what is to be done 
in a given test. 

The duration and extent of an individual examination should de- 
pend upon the nature of the case and should A^ary Avith the informa- 
tion necessary for safe report and recommendation. In some in- 
stances only a fcAv tests need be given, in others, even a prolonged 
examination may leave the examiner in doubt concerning suitable 
recommendation, and may force him to appeal to company com- 
mander or others for supplementary information. Unless conditions 
render haste imperative, the examiner should obtain a definite in- 
telligence rating for each subject in terms of mental age. 

Condensed instructions for administering the Point Scale and the 
Stanford-Binet scale are printed in this guide for the conA^enience 
of examiners, but these instructions can be used safely only on the 
basis of thorough knoAvledge of the detailed descriptions of these 
tAvo scales Avhich are aA ailable in book form. The Performance Scale 
is fully described in this guide, since its constituent parts and their 
standardization are newly chosen and especially adapted for army 
use. 

It is the task of the psj^chological examiner to obtain reliable in- 
telligence ratings and to make recommendations based thereupon. 
Where serious mental peculiarities or psychopathic conditions are 
discoA^ered, full report should be made and the subject promptly re- 
ferred to the psychiatrist Avith such information as the psychological 
examination has supplied. 

The Examiner H U ecomnie ndatUynn . — As a result of careful psycho- 
logical examination, the examiner may conclude, (1) that the subject 
should be assigred or retu/ned to 'appropriate military organization 
for regular training; (2) that he should be assigned or transferred 
to the DeA'elopment Battalion or to a service organization in Avhich 
simple forms of manual labor are the chief requirement; (3) that he 
should be recommended to the psychiatrist for discharge by reason 
of intellectual deficiency; (4) that he should be referred to the psy- 
chiatrist for further examination l)ecause of peculiarities of behaA'ior 
or definite psychopathic tendencies. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



39 



It is impossible to state with safety the particiihir degree of intellec- 
tual deficiency which justifies recommendation for discharge. Other 
factors than intelligence contribute to a man's serviceableness in the 
Army. These must be taken into account. If the officers who are 
attempting to train a man are satisfied with his res])onses, the indi- 
cations are that he should not be discharged, even if very inferior in 
intelligence. In general^ subjects whose mental age Is helow eight 
should he seriously considered for discharge or Development Bat- 
talion. Those whose mental ages range from eight to t< n should he 
considered for use in special service organizations or for assignment 
to Development Battalion. All others, except those Avhose psychotic 
symptoms would cause their immediate reference to the neuro- 
psychiatric examiner, should be assigned to regular training organi- 
zations. 

Grade E shall be given to all men who are recommended by the 
examiner for discharge, Development Battalion, or service organiza- 
tions, and to such men only. All men Avhose intelligence is deemed 
satisfactory for regular military duty shall be given rating of I)— 
or higher. 

In this connection too great emphasis can not be laid upon the use 
of common sense as well as technical skill and information by the 
psychological examiner. While doing his utmost to obtain reliable 
measurement of mental traits, he should be quick to observe indica- 
tions of qualities of physique, temperament, and character Avhich are 
important in the soldier. 

2. POINT SCALE EXAMINATION. 



(a) PROCEDURE.^ 

Test 1. — ^Esthetic Comparison and Judgment. 

Expose first only pair {a) of Test 1, trial 1;- next pair {h) : and 
last pair (c), saying each time, " Which is the prettier of these ttvo 
faces f'' If prettier is unintelligible, ask ''Which do you like the 
hetterf^^ Eecord judgment (+ or — ) each time. If there have been 
any correct judgments, repeat the procedure with trial 2. 

Credit 1 point for each pair, if both judgments have been correct. 
Total possible credits 3. 

Test 2. — Perception and Comparison of Pictures (Missing 

Parts). 

Present card (Test 2, a) asking simply, " What is miss^ing in this 
picture of a woman? " If S. responds "hands " or " arms," pass on to 
the next part of the test, but if instead he says " hat," ask " What 
elsef'^ If again he replies incorrectly, consider the attempt a fail- 
ure and pass on to card h, c, d. With the faces {c) and (d) covered, 
present face (h) asking, ''Wha,t is mi^ssing in this facef'' If S. re- 
plies "an ear," ask ''What elsef'^ Similarly present (c) and (fZ), 
giving two chances and no more. 

Credit 1 point for each correct response. Total possible credits 4. 

^ The following condensed directions for point scale examination should be supple- 
mented by reference to Yorkos. Bridges and Hardwick, "A Toint Scale for Measuring 
Mental Ability," Warwick and York. Baltimore. 

2 See material for point scale examination. 



40 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 

Test 3. — Comparison of Lines and Weights. 

(«) Present the lines on card (Test 3, a) Avitli the .longer one 
above, saying, '' Which is the longer of these two lines? ^"^ If the an- 
swer is incorrect, proceed no farther; if correct, remove the card 
from view, turn it upside down, and present it with the longer line 
below. {!)) Xext place before S. the 3 and 12 gram weights, abont 5 
centimeters apart, saying, " / ivish you to tell me which is the heavier 
of these two blocks,''^ If S. merely chooses a Aveight by pointing, ask 
''How do you knoiof^ and if he still hesitates to touch them, say, 
'' You inay touch them- if you ur'ish to^ If S. responds correctly by 
lifting the weights and selecting the heavier one, reverse the blocks 
in position and give a second trial, {c) Same procedure, with 6 and 
15 gram weights. 

Credit 1 point for {a) if both judgments have been correct. Simi- 
larly for {h) and {c). Total possible credits 3. 



Test 4. — Memory Span for Digits. 



Digits Used : 



ih) 


{(■) 


(d) 


(c) 


2947 


35871 


491572 


2749385 


6135 


92736 


516283 


6195847 



(a) 

First set 374 

Second set 581 

Say, " Listen^ and repeat eX'actly what I say^ Then read distinctly 
and at the rate of two per second, in a perfectly monotonous tone, 
the following digits, "5, 7, ^" and pause for response. If S. fails to 
grasp the idea and makes no response, tell him again to listen care- 
fully and to sa}^ just what jon sa}^ Then present again the same set 
of digits. If S. repeats them correctly, pass on to the first set of four 
digits given under {h). Jf he fails to repeat correctly the first set 
of three digits, he is given the second set " 5, 8^ i." If S. fails in this 
trial, the test is discontinued; if he succeeds, proceed to the next 
larger group of digits. Similarly for (&), (<?), (</), and {e). Only 
in (a) is a second trial allowed with the first set. 

Credit (a), (&), (<?), {d)^ and {e) 1 point each for correct repro- 
duction of either set. Total possible credits 5. 

Test 5. — Counting Backward. 

{a) Say, "/ wish you to count backward from 20 to i, like this: 
26^ 2Jf^ 23^ 22^ 21^ At this point pause and wait for S. to continue 
counting, {h) If he is unable to make a start, E. should himself 
continue " 20^ 19^ 18, 77, 16 " and pause again for S. to take up the 
counting, (c) If once more S. fails to make a start, E. should con- 
tinue "7-5, 14, IS, 12, 11 " and again pause, {d) If S. is still unable 
to respond, E. should count " 10, 9, 8, 7, 6 '■ — and once more pause. 

If S. takes up the counting at 20 and counts without mistake to 1 
in about 30 seconds, 4 points credit should be given. If he makes a 
single mistake (reversal or omission) he should be asked to repeat, 
and if the mistake is corrected, full credit should be given; if it is 
not corrected he should be credited for counting from the next multi- 
ple of five below his mistake. The credit for counting correctly from 
15 to 1 is 3 points; from 10 to 1, 2 points; from 5 to 1, 1 point. The 
time limit for (&), (<?), and {d) is also 30 seconds. Total possible 
credits 4. 1 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 41 

Test 6. — Repetition of Sentences. 

Say, ''^Listen carefully and repeat just what I say^ Be sure S. is 
attending, then read {a) sloAvly and distinctly. If S. makes no re- 
sponse, repeat. Whether or not S. succeeds with {a) on second ti-ial. 
proceed to (h). Whenever furtlier faihire occurs discontinue the test. 

Credit 1 point each for {a) and (^), 2 points each for {c) and (d) 
repeated correct^, or with only an error due to an evident misunder- 
standing of a word. Total possible credits, 6. 

Test 7. — Description of Pictures. 

Show card (Test. 7, a) sa3dng, ^^ Please look at this picture and fell 
me ahout Ity Similarly for {h) and (r?). 

Credit 1 point each for («), {h) ^ and {c) for enumeration; 2 points 
^each for description, whether or not accompanied by enumeration ; 3 
points each for interj^retation, whether or not accompanied by de- 
scription. Total possible credits, 9. 

Test 8.—- Arranging Weights. 

Place 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15-gram Aveights on table before S. and say, 
''^ These little blocks are all the same size^ hut they iceigh di-jf event 
mnounts. Some are heavier and some are lighter. I irish you to 
place the heaviest one here; and next to it^ here^ the one which is just 
a little less heavy; and then here, the one which is a little less heavy 
than that; and then the one ichich is •still a little ler.s heavy ; and 
-finally, here, the lightest one of all.:'^ While speaking, point to the 
place on the table where each block belongs. It is essential to give 
this explicit form of directions to very inferior subjects, but usually 
E. need only say, " / wish you to arrange these blocks in order of 
weight, beginning %oith the heaviest one, here, and placing the light- 
est one here, at the opposite end of the series.''^ If first arrangement 
is not correct, give second trial, cautioning S. to be careful and not 
to hurry too much. 

Credit 2 points for one entirely correct arrangement ; 1 point, if in 
either the first or the second trial the arrangement is correct excej^t 
for the interchange of two consecutive blocks. Total possible 
credits, 2. 

Test 9. — Comparison of Objects. 

Say, " You know lohat an apple is? You know udiaf a, banana is? 
Tell me how they are different from one another!^'' Same procedure 
for %oood and glass, ?ind paper and cloth. If only one point of differ- 
ence is given, say, " What other differences are there? ''' 

Credit 1 point for one correct point of difference, 2 points for two 
or more correct points of difference in each pair. Total possible 
credits, 6. 

Test 10. — Definitions of Concrete Terms. 

Say, {a) " What is a spoon? '''' (b) " What is a chair? ^^ and simi- 
larly for " ho7^se " and " baby.'''' 

Credit 1 point for definition in terms of use, and 2 points for 
definition in terms superior to use. (See book.) Total possible 
credits 8. 



42 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 

Test 11. — Resistance to Suggestion. 

Show S. successively cards (a), (h) , and (c) with longer line 
always on S.'s right, saying, ** Which is the longer of these two 
lines f^^ Follow immediately with cards (rZ). (e), and (/), chang- 
ing form of question to '"And of theseV^ Record each judgment. 

Credit 1 point each for response of "equal'' or '* left " to (<i), 
(e), and (/), provided only there has been no incorrect response to 
(^), (7>). or ((?). Total possible credits 3. 

Test 12. — Copying Square and Diamond. 

Place card (Test 12, a) directly in front of S. and say, indicating 
back of record sheet, ^'"Please drair "icith your pencil a figure just 
like the one before youy Same for card {h). 

Credit for square, 2 points for any figure which shows approxi- 
mate equality of both lines and angles (see scoring card type a). 
and 1 point for figure showing approximate equality of angles but 
not of lines, or of lines but not of angles (types h and c) : for dia- 
mond, 2 points for any figure which shows approximate equality of 
both pairs of opposite angles (see scoring card, type a), and 1 
pK)int for figure showing approximate equalitv of only one pair of 
opposite angles (type h) ; no credit for anythin^j indistinguishable 
from a square or unidentifiable readily as a diamond (type c) . 
Total possible credits 4. 

Test 13. — Free Association. 

Sa}^, "/ u)ish you to say all the loords that you can think of in three 
minutes. When I ^ay ' Ready ^ you hegin^ and say as many words 
as you can before I tell yon to stop. Say such words as pin. tahle^ 
grass., trees., clouds, horse ^ (loQ- brook. All ready. Begin.'''' If S. 
stops, as if assuming that enough Avords had been given, at the end 
of a half minute say. '^ Go on. please.'^ Eepeat this, if necessary, 
at the end of each half minute for the whole period. 

Credit for words or phrases (except for repetitions) as follows: 1 
point for 30-44 Avorcls ; 2 points for 45-59 words ; 3 points for 60-74 ; 
4 points for 75 and upward. Total possible credits 4. 

Test 14. — Use of Three Given Words in One Sentence. 

On the back of the I'ecord sheet write plainly the words, Boston, 
money, river. Show them to S., read them over twice, and say, " / 
wish you to make one sentence in frhich the three "U'ords Boston, 
money^ and river are used!''' Make sure that S. understands the 
three words, knows what is meant by a sentence, and grasps the fact 
that one, not two or more sentences, is required. It is especially 
necessary to emphasize that the three words are to be used along 
with other words in making one good sentence. The sentence may 
either be Avritten, or given orally and recorded by E. 

Credit 4 points for the three words used in one sentence: 2 points 
if they are used in two separate sentences or in sentences very 
loosely connected. Total possible credits 4. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



43 



Test 15.-^Comprehension of Questions. 

Read each question slowly and distinctly, twice if necessary. If S. 
fails to respond, he should be encouraged. 

(a) If you were going moay and missed your train, tchat 'would 
you do? 

(h) If some one has been unkind to you and says he is sorry, ichat 
should you do? 

{c) Why should you jitdge a person by loliat he does rather than 
by IV hat he says? 

(d) Why do we more readily forgive an unkind act done in anger 
than one done without anger? 

Credit 2 points each for satisfactory answer. Half credit may 
sometimes be given (see book). Total possible credits, 8. 

Test 16. — Drawing Designs from Memory. 

Say to S., " / am going to show you two draioings. After you have 
looked at them, I shall take them away and ask you to draiu both of 
them from memory. You must look at them carefully, because you 
will see them for only fifteen seconds, and that is a very short timeP 

Credit 2 points for each correct reproduction. Irregularity of line 
is disregarded. Credit 1 point for imperfect reproductions, such as 
those in which the rectangle is placed in center of prism, or small 
squares of (&) turned outward instead of imvard (see scoring cards). 
Total possible credits, 4. 

Test IfT. — Criticisms of Absurd Statements. 



Sa}" " / am going to read some sentences to you. In each one of 
ther)i there is something foolish or absurd. (Make sure that S. 
understands what is meant by "foolish" or by "absurd.") Lhten 
carefully and tell m,e each time what it is that is foolish.'''' Read each 
question slowly and distinctly, twice if necessary, and ask. " Note, 
vnhat is foolish ahout that? " 

{a) We met a finely dressed gentleman. He wa^s walking along 
the street loith his hands in his pockets and swinging hij^ cane. 

(b) An unlucky bicycle rider fell on his head and was instantly 
killed: they took him to the hospital and fear that he cannot get 
well. 

(c) A little boy said: "/ have three brothers, Paul, Ernest, and 
myself.''^ 

(d) At the crossroads was a guidepost with the. following direc- 
tions: ^^ Boston, three miles and a half ; if qjou can't read, inquire at 
the blacksmith shop.'''' 

(<?) It has been fouml that the last car of a train is damxi^ed most 
in case of accident. It would therefore be better to leave off the last 
car. 

Credit 1 point for each satisfactory response; no partial credits 
allowed. Total possible credits, 5. 



44 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Test 18. — Construction of Sentences. 

Show S. card (Test 18, a) and sav, ''You nee these ii^orch. Read 
them to nu\ please'^ Be sure S. recognizes the words, then continue, 
^'Xoa\ pleane arrange them so that they mal^e sense. Mahe one good 
xentence oat of them, using every irord that yon read ^ hut no other 
loords.^'' 

Credit 2 i^oints each for («), (/>), and (r). No ]:)artial credits al- 
lowed (see book). Total possible credits, G. 

Test 19.— Definitions of Abstract Terms.. 

Say, ''IFAr/^ does charity m.eanf^^ '^^Yhat does obedience meanf] 
''What does justice meanf'^ The definition of charity should express 
two ideas, that of unfortunates and of kindness shown them. If S. 
replies "love," ask him "YVhat sort of lovef^ or "To whom is the 
love shown? " The definition of obedience should be " to do what you 
are told," or the equivalent idea. If S. saj^s " to obey," ask him wh u 
obey means. The definition of justice should involve the idea of fair- 
ness, of treating people according to their merits, of protection ac- 
corded to people or their interests, etc. If S. replies " justice of the 
peace," tell lijm that is not the kind of justice meant and give another 
trial. 

For acceptable response,. as above defined, credit 2 points for each 
of the three terms; no partial credits allowed. Total possible cred- 
its, 6. 

Test 20.— Analogies. 

, "// / say 'Man ?/; to t)oy as woman is to ,' what would you say? " 

Pause for a second, and if S. does not respond say "Girir adding. 
"for girl has the same relation to woman as hoy has to Tnan." Then 
give the tAvo following examples, supplying the missing term if S. 

can not do so: "Boat is to iraier as train is to — " (track). "Chew 

is to teeth as smell is to " (nose). "Noiv we?ll try some others. 

Think veil hefore you speak. DonH hurryP Give (<2) to (/) in 
order. 

Credit 1 point for each correct response. Total possible credits. 6. 

(b) ADAPTATION FOR USE AVITH ILLITERATES. 

In the examination of an illiterate subject, tests 14 and 18 should be 
omitted and the following additions made to the total score: 

Total , , Points 

score. - added. 

18-51 

52-58__ 2 

59-62 , . 4 

63-69 6 

70-74 8 

75-77 l__^ 9 

78-90__ 10 

(c) EXPRESSING AND INTERPRETING RESULTS. 

The results of the point-scale examination should be expressed in 
the following ways : (1) Total score; (2) mental age; (3) letter rating. 
The accompanying tables wdll enable the examiner readily to trans- 
mute any point-scale score into mental age and letter rating. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY 

Table of cqiurnlcnf p(>int-sc<ilc idliics. 



45 



Score. 


Mental 
age. 


Score, 


Mental 
age. 




r 18 or 
\ a'bov-e 
17.5 
17 

16.5 
16.1 
15.7 
15.3 
14.9 
14.5 
14.2 
13.9 
13.6 
13.4 
13.2 
13 

12.8 
12.5 
12.3 
12 

n.8 

11.7 
11.5 

n.3 

11.2 

11.0 

10.8 

10. 7 

10.5 

10.3 

10.2 

10 

9.9 

9.8 

9.6 

9.5 

9.4 

9.3 


51 


9.1 


88 to 100 


50 






9 


87 


49 


8.9 


86 


48 


8.8 


85 


47 


8.7 


84 


46 


8.6 


83 


45 


8.4 


82 


44 


8.3 


81 


43 


8.2 


80 


42 


8.1 


79 


41 


8.0 


78 


40 


7.8 


77 


39 


7.7 


76 


38 


7.5 


75 


37 


7.3 


74 


36 


7.2 


73 


35 


7.0 


72 


34 


6.9 


71 


33 


6.7 


70 


32 


6.6 


69 


31 


6.4 


68 


30 •- 


6.3 


67 


29 


6.1 


66 


28 


6.0 


65 


27 


5.8 


64 


26 . 


5.7 


63 


25 


5.5 


62 


24 


5.3 


61 


23 • 


5.2 


60 


22 


5.0 


59 


21 


4.9 


58 


20 


4. 7 


57 


19 


4.6 


56 


18 


4.4 


55 


17 


4.3 


54 


16 


4.1 


53 


15 


4.0 


52 











Subjects obtaining a score of 60 points or more may ordinarily be 
recommended for regular military training; subjects obtaining scores 
from 40 to 59 points should be considered for assignment to service 
organizations or to Development Battalion: subjects with scores be- 
low 40 points should be considered for discharge. 

Letter ratings should be assigned as follows: 

A (Not given ) 

B 95-100 

C+ 90-94 

C 80-89 

C— 70-79 

D 60-69 

D— 0-ri!) 

(See below.) 

Grade E shall be given to all men who are recommended by the 
examiner for rejection, discharge. Development Battalion, or service 
organizations, and to surh men o)th/. All men whose intelligence is 
deemed satisfactory for regular militar}^ duty shall be given rating of 
D — or higher. 



3. STANFORD-BINET EXAMINATION. 

(a) procedure/ 
III. 

1. Pointing to Parts of Body. 

Say, ^^ Show me your nose^ '^ Put your finger on your nose."'^ If 
two or three repetitions of instructions bring no response, say, "/§ 
this (pointing to chin) your iwsef'' ''^Nof'' ''''Then where is your 
nose? " Same for eyes, mouth and hair. 

Credit if correct part is indicated (in any way) three times out 
of four. 

2. Naming Familiar Objects. 

Show S, one at a time, key (not Yale), penny (not new^), closed 
knife, watch, pencil. Say each time, ''''What is thisf'' or '"''Tell me 
what this is.''^ 

Credit if three responses out of five are correct. 

3. Pictures — Enumeration. 

Say, ''''Now I am going to show you a pretty pictured Show pic- 
ture {a) and say, ^^Tell me what you see in this picture^'' or ''''Look at 
the picture and tell me everything you can see in itP If no response, 

'' Show 7ne the ." " That is fine : now tell me everything you see 

in the pictured If necessary ask, ''''And what elsef'' Same for pic- 
tures (6) and ((?). 

Credit if at least three objects in one picture are enumerated spon- 
taneously, or if one picture is described or interpreted. 

4. Giving Sex. 

''''Are you a man or a woman? " If S. does not respond, say '''Are 
you a woman? '^'' If answer is "7V^6>" or a shake of the head, say, 
Well what are you? Are you a man or a icoman?^^ 

5. Giving Last Name. 

Ask, " What is your nainef'^ If answer is only first or last name, 
e. g., Walter, say " YeSy hut what is your other name? Walter 
what?''"' and if necessar}^, "/s your name Walter Smith?'''' 

6. Repeating Sentences. 

''Can you say, 'nice hitty ''?'''' "Now say 'I have a little dog."^'' 
If no response, E. ma}^ repeat first sentence two or three times. 
Same procedure for (b) and (<?), except that these may be given only 
once. 

^ Detailed direction for administering Stanford-Binet Scale and for scoring are avail- 
able in Terraan's " The Measurem(>nt of Intt'lligence," Houghton Mifflin Co. 

47 



48 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Credit if at least one sentence is given without error after a single 
reading. 

Alt. Repeating Three Digits. 

Say, '* Listen. Say 4. '2. Now say 6, 4, 1.-' Etc. May repeat 
(a), not others. Eate a little faster than one digit per second. 

Credit if one set out of the three is given correctly after a single 
reading. 

IV. 

1. Comparison of Lines. 

Shovr card and say, "' See these lines. Look closely and tell me 
which one is longer. Put your fjir/er on the longest one.'''' If no 
response, '' SJioto me which line is the biggest.'''' Show tAvice more 
(reversing card at second showing) and ask, '''Which one is the 
longest heref^ If two out of three are correct, repeat the entire 
test. 

Credit if three responses out of three, or five out of six, are 
correct. 

2. Discrimination of Forms. 

^ Place circle at "X" on card and say, ^' Show me one like this,'^'' 
at same time passing the finger around the circumference of the 
circle. If no response, ''Do you see all of these things?''^ (running 
finger over the various forms). "And do you see this oneP'^ (point- 
ing to circle again). '' Noiv^ find me another one just like this. ^"^ 
A first error should be corrected thus, "No^ find me one just like 
this-' (again passing finger around the outline of form at "X"). 
Make no comment on any other errors, but pass on to the square, 
then the triangle, and the rest in any order. Commend successes. 

Credit for 7 correct choices out of 10. The first error, if corrected, 
counts as correct. 

3. Counting Four Pennies. 

Place four pennies in a horizontal' row. Say, ''See these pennies. 
Count them and tell me how many there a.re. Count them with 
your finger^ this icay'''' (pointing to the first one on the subject's 
left) — " One.'''' " Now\ go alieadP If S. gives number without point- 
ing, say, " xVr), count them with your finger^ this way.'' starting him 
as before. Have S. count aloud. 

Credit for correct count tallying with ])ointing. 

4. Copying Square. 

Place card (IV 4) before S., and give pencil, saying, " You see 
thatf^ (pointing to square). " I want you to make one just like it. 
Malce it right here''^ (showing space on record blank). " Go ahead. 
I know you can do it nicely.''^ Unless drawing is clearly satisfac- 
tory, repeat twice more, saying each time " Make it exactly like this " 
and pointing to model. 

Credit if one drawing is satisfactory. (See scoring card.) 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 



49 



5. Comprehension. 

Be sure to get S.'s attention before asking question. Repeat if 
necessary. Allow 20 seconds for answer. 

(a) " What must you do when you are sleepy?^'' 
\h) " What ought you to do when you are coldf'' 
{c) " What ought you to do when you are hungry? '''^ 
Credit if two responses of the three are correct. 

6. Repeating Four Digits. 

Say, " Now^ listen. I am going to say over some numbers and after 
I am through^ I want you to say them exactly as I do. Listen closely 
and get them just right.'''' Give («), then (6). and (c) if necessary. 
May repeat {a) until attempt is made, but not others. Rate a little 
faster than one digit per second. 

Credit if one set of the three is correctly repeated in order, after 
a single reading. 

7. Alt. Repeating Sentences. 

Say, ^"Listen, say this^ ' Where is kitty f^^' ''^ Now, say this, ," 

reading the first sentence in a natural voice, distinctly and Avith ex- 
pression. May reread the first sentence. 

Credit if at least one sentence is repeated correctly after a single 
reading. 

V. 

1. Comparison of Weights. 

Place the 3 and 15-gram w^eights before S., 2 or 3 inches apart. 
Say, " You see these hlocks. They look just alike^ hut one of them is 
heavy and one is light. Try them and tell me lohich one is heavier.''^ 
Repeat instructions if necessary, saying, " 7'ell me lohich one is the 
heaviest.'''' If S. merely points without lifting blocks, or picks up one 
at random, say, " No^ that is not the way. You nfiust take the hlocks 
in your hands and try them^ like this.'''' (Illustrate.) Gi\*e second 
trial with position of weights reversed; third trial with weights in 
same position as first. 

Credit if two of three comparisons are correct. 

2. Naming Colors. 

Show card (V2) and say, pointing to colors in the order, red, 
yellow, blue, green, " What is the nam.e of that color? " 

Credit if all colors are correctly named, without marked uncer- 
tainty. 



3. Esthetic Comparison. 

Show pairs of faces in order from top to bottom of card. 
" Which of these two pictures is the prettiest? " 
Credit if all three comparisons are made correctly. 



Say, 



4. Definitions: Use or Better. 

Say, " You have seen a chair. You knoio tohat a chair is. Tell me, 
what is a chair? '' If necessary urge as follows : " / am sure you 

72219—18 4 



50 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

know what a chair is. You have seen a, chaivP " Now^ tell ?7ie, %i:)hat 
is a chair? " If S. rambles say, " Yes^ hut tell me; lohat is a chair? " 
Same for horse, fork, doll, pencil, table. 

Credit if four words out of the six are defined in terms of use or 
better. 

5. Patience. 

Lay cards thus A V , and say, '^ 7 want you to take these two 
pieces (touching the two triangles) and fiit them together so they 
'will look exactly like this "/ (pointing to rectangle). If S. hesitates, 
repeat instructions with a little urging. If first attempt is a failure, 
replace pieces, saying, '^ No; put them together so they loill look like 
this'^ (pointing to rectangle). Do not suggest further by face or 
word whether response is correct. If a piece is turned over, turn it 
back and don't count that trial. Give, if necessary, three trials of 
one minute each. 

Credit if two of the three trials are successful. 

6. Three Commissions. 

Take S. to center of room. Say, ^^ Noii\ I want you to do some- 
thing for Tne. Here'^s a key. I want you to put it on that chair over 
there; then I want you to shut {or open) that door^ and then bring 
me the hox which you see over there ^"^ (pointing in turn to the ob- 
jects designated). _'' Dou you uiulerstand? Be sure to get it right. 
First^ put the key on the chair ^ then shut {or open) the door^ then 
bring me the box (again pointing). Go aheadP Stress words iirst 
and then. Give no further aid. 

Credit if the three commissions are executed in proper order. 

Alt. Giving Age. 

Say, ''''How old are you?'''' 

• VI. 

1. Right and Left. 

Say, " Show me your right hand " (stress right and hand., etc., 
rather strongly and equally). Same for left ear, right eye. If there 
is one error, repeat whole test, using left hand., right ear., left eye. 
Avoid giving aid in any way. 

Credit if three of three, or five of six responses are correct. 

2. Missing Parts. 

Show card (VI2) and say, '"'There is something wrong with this 
face. It is not all there. Part of it is left out. Look carefully and tell 
me what part of the face is not there.'''' Same for {h) and (c). If S. 
gives irrelevant answer, say, ''''No; I am talking about the face. 
Look again and tell me what is left out of the face.'''' If correct re- 
sponse does not follow, point to the place where eye should be and 
say, " See.^ the eye is gone.'''' Then proceed to others, asking, " What is 
left out of this face?'''' For {d) say, " What is left out of this pic- 
ture?'''' No help except on {a). 

Credit if correct response is made for three of four pictures. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 



51 



3. Counting Thirteen Pennies. 

Place thirteen pennies in horizontal row. Say, " See thehe penineH. 
Count them and tell me how many there are. Count them with your 
■finger^ this way'^'' (pointing* to the first one on the subject's left — 
'' One — Nott\ go aheadP If S. gives number without pointing, say. 
"x¥6>, count them) with your finger, this v:ay^'' starting him as before. 
Have S. count aloud. Second trial given if only minor mistake is 
made. 

Credit if one correct count, tallying with the pointing, is made in 
first or second trials. 

4. Comprehension. 

Say (a) '''''WhaVn the thing for a hoy to do if it is i^aining when 
he starts to school? " 

{h) " Whath the thing to do if you fl/7id that your house in on 
ftref' 

{g) " What\s the thing to do if you are going some place and miss 
your train {car)f Ma}^ repeat a question, but do not change form. 

Credit if two of three responses are correct. (See book.) 

5. Naming Four Coins. 

Show in order nickel, penny, quarter, dime, asking, " What is 
that? " If answer is " money,'' say, " Yes^ hut what do you call that 
piece of money f^ 

Credit if three of four responses are correct. 

6. Repeating Sentences. 

Say, ^'' Now^ listen. I am going to say something and after I am 
through I want you to say it over just as I do. Understand? Listen 
carefully and he sure to say exactly what I say.'''' Repeat, " say ex- 
actly lohat I say^'^ before reading each sentence. Do not re-read any 
sentence. 

Credit if one sentence out of three is repeated Avithout error, or two 
with not more than one error each. 

Alt. Forenoon and Afternoon. 

If a. m., ask, "'Is it mornmg or afternoon?''''' If p. m.. "7.9 it 
afternoon or morn'mg?^'' 

1. Giving Numbers of Fingers. 

Say, ^^ How many fingers hare you on one hand?^'' ''^ How many 
on the other ha.nd?''^ "' Hoio many on hoth hands together?'''' If 
S. begins to count, say, ^^ Xo. don''i count. Tell me without count- 
ings^'' and repeat question. 

Credit if all three questions are answered correctly and promptly 
without counting (5, 5, 10 or 4. 4. 8). 

2. Pictures; Description. 

Show^ card {a) and sa.v. ^"What is this picture about?'''' ^'What 
is this a. picture of? " May repeat question, but do not change it. 
Same for {h) and {c). 

Credit if two of the three pictures are described or interpreted. 
(See book.) 



52 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

3. Repeating Five Digits. 

Say, '* Xot(\ listen. I am going to say over some nuTrhbers and 
after I am through^ I want you to say them, exactly as I do. Listen 
closely and get them just right."'' Give («), and if necessary {h) 
and {c). Do not re-read an}^ set. 

Credit if one set of the three is given correctly. 

4. Tying Bow Knot. 

Show S. the completed bow knot and say : " You know what kind 
of a knot this is^ doiiH you? It is a hoio knot. I want you to take 
this other piece of string and tie the same kind of knot around my 
finger.'''' Give S. string of same length and hold finger (or pencil, 
etc.) convenienth^ for S. 

Credit if double bow (both ends folded in) is tied within one 
minute. The usual half knot as basis must not be omitted. Single 
bow, half credit. 

5. Giving Differences. 

Say, " What is the difference hetween a f.y and a hutterfiy f ''"' If 

5. does not understand, say. " You know flies., do you not? You 
have seen flies? And you knoio the hutterflies? Noic^ tell me the 
difference hetiveen a fy and a hutterfly.'''' Same for stone and egg., 
and wood and glass. 

Credit if any real difference is given in two of three questions. 

6. Copying Diamond. 

Place card YII^ before S., and give pen, saying, " / toant you to 
draw one exactly like this. Make it right here " (showing space on 
record blank). Give three trials if necessary, saying each time, 
^^ Make it exactly like this one.'''' . (Note that pen and ink must be 
used. ) 

Credit if two draAvings are satisfactory. (See scoring card.) 

Alt. 1. Naming Days of Week. 

Say, " You know the days of the ice ek, do you not?"'' ''''Name the 
days of the week for me.'''' If response is correct, check by asking, 
^'•What day conies before Tuesday?'''^ *' Before Thursday?''^ '''Before 
Friday?^'' 

Credit if correct response is given within 15 seconds, and if tAvo of 
three checks are correct. 

Alt. 2. Three Digits Backwards. 

Say, '^Listen carefully. I am going to read some nunfihers again 
hut this time I want you to say them backwards. For example, if 1 
should say f>—l—I^, you loould say k — I — -^- ^o you understand?'''' 
Then., " Ready ^ noiv; listen carefully^ and be sure to say the numbers 
backwards^ If S. gives digits forwards, repeat instructions. If 
necessary, give {b) and (<^), repeating, " Ready ^ now; listen carefully^ 
and be sure to say the numbers ba^ckwardsP 

Credit if one set is repeated backwards without error. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 53 

VIII. 

1. Ball and Field. 

Present '' round field "' on record blank with gate facing S. and 
say, '"''Let us suppose that your hasehall has been lost in this round 
field. You have no idea, trh/tf part of the field it is in. You donH 
hnow what direction it came from, how it got there, nor with luhat 
force it came. All you know in that the hall is lost somewhere in 
the fi.eld. Now. take this pencil coal mark out a. path to show me 
how you would hunt for the hcdl so as to he sure not to miss it. 
Begin at the gate and shoio me what path you would take.'''' If S. 
stops, say, ''Bat suppose you have not found it yet^ which direction 
would you go next? " 

Credit in Year VIII for " inferior '' plan (or better) ; in Years 
VIII and XII for " superior '' plan. (See scoring card.) 

2. Counting 20 to 1. 

Say, " You can count hackwards^ can you not? I want you to 
count backwards for me from 20 to 1. Go ahead.'''' If S. counts 1-20 
say, "7V^6>, / iccmt you to count hackwards from 20 to i, like this: 
W — 19 — 18 and clear on down to 1. Now^ go ahead.''' Have S. try, 
even if he says he can't, but do not prompt. 

Credit for counting from 20 to 1 Avithin 40 seconds with not more 
than one error. Spontaneous corrections allowed. 

3. Comprehension. 

Say, " What\s the thing for you to do : 

(a) " When you have broken something tohich belongs to someone 
else? 

(h) " When you are on your way to work and notice that you are 
In danger of being late? 

((?) "// someone hits you, without meaning to do it? " 

Questions may be repeated once or twice, but form must not be 
•.hanged. 

Credit if two of three responses are correct. (See book.) 

4. Finding Likenesses: Two Things. 

Say, " / am going to name two things which are cdike in some 

way^ and I want you to tell me how they are alike. 

(a) " Wood and coal: in lohat way are they alike? " If difference 

is given, sa}^, " No^ I want you to tell me how they are alike. In 

what way are wood and coal alike? " 

(&) ''''In what way are an apple and a peach alike? " 

(<?) " In what %oay are iron and silver alike? " 

{d) ''''In what way are a ship and an automobile alike? " 

Credit if any real likeness is given for two of the four pairs. (See 

book.) _ 

5. Definitions: Superior to Use. 

Ask, " What is a balloon?''^ Same for tiger^ football^ soldier. Do 
not comment on responses. May repeat questions. 

Credit if two of four definitions better than use are given. 



54 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IX THE AEMY. 

6. Vocabulary. 

See page 6G. 

Alt. 1. Naming Six Coins. 

Show nickel, penny, quarter, dime, silver dollar and half-dollar 
in order, asking, ^^What is thatf"' If answer is *' money," say, 
" Yes^ hut what do you call that piece of money? " 

Credit if all six coins are correctly named. Spontaneous correc- 
tions allowed. 

Alt. 2. Writing from Dictation. 

Give pen, ink, and paper, and say, " / want you to write some- 
thing for m.e as nicely as you can. Write these words: ' See the little 
hoy.'' Be sure to write it all: ''See the little hoy^ Do not dictate 
the words separately, nor give further repetition. 

Credit if sentence is written without omission of word, and leffiblv 
enough to be easily recognized. Misspelling disregarded if word is 
easily recognizable. (See scoring card.) 

IX. 

1. Giving the Date. 

Ask in order, (<z)"TrA<2/ day of the week is to-day f^^ (h) '''What 
month is it? " {c) ''What day of the month is it? " {d) "What year 
is it? " If S. gives day of month for day of week, or vice versa^ repeat 
question with suitable emphasis. Xo other help. 

Credit if there is no error greater than three days in {c) and no 
error in («), (6), and {d). Spontaneous correction allowed. 

2. Arranging Five Weights. 

Place 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 gram weights before S. and say, "See these 
hlocks. They all look alike., dorvt they? But they are not alike. 
Some of thera are heavy ^ some are not guite so heavy., and some are 
still lighter. No tivo weigh the same. No'io^ I loant you to find the 
heaviest one and place it here. Then find the one that is just a little 
lighter and put it here. Then put the next lighter one here^ and the 
next lighter one here., and the lightest of all at this end [pointing]. 
Do you understand? Rememher now., that no two weights are the 
same. Find the heaviest one and put it here., the next heaviest here., 
and lighter., lighter., until you have the very lightest here. Ready ; go 
ahead.''"' Give second and, if necessary, third trial, repeating instruc- 
tions only if S. has used an absurd procedure. 

Credit for correct arrangement in two of three trials. 

3. Making Change. 

Ask, "If I were to huy ^ cents worth of candy and should give the 
storekeeper 10 cents., how much m^oney would I get hack? Similarly 
for 15-12 cents; and 25-4 cents. S. is not allowed coins or pencil and 
paper. If S. forgets problem, repeat once, but not more. Spon- 
taneous corrections allowed. 

Credit if two answers of three are correct. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 55 

4. Four Digits Backwards. 

Say, ''''Listen carefully. I am going to read some number's^ and I 
want you to say them' backwards . For example^ if I should say 
5 — 1 — 4? 2/<5^ would say 4 — ^ — 5. Do you understand? " Then, 
''Ready noio ; listen carefully., and he sure to say the nmribers haclc- 
wardsP If S. gives digits forwards, repeat instructions. If neces- 
sary, give (6) and (c), repeating each time, '-''Ready now; listen care- 
fully^ and he sure to say the numbers backwards.'''' 

Credit if one set is repeated backwards without error. 

5. Three Words in One Sentence. 

Say, " You know what a sentence is, of course. A sentence is 
made uf of some toords which say something. Now., I am going 
to give you three words., and you must m/ike up a sentence that has 
all three ivords in it. The three toords are ' boy,'' ' river,'' ' ball.'^ 
Go ahead and make up a sentence that has all three words in it.'''' 
Repeat instructions if necessary, but do not ilhistrate. May say, 
'• The three words must be put with som,e other words so that all of 
them together will make a sentenced Give only one trial, and do 
not caution against making more than one sentence. Do not hurry 
S., but allow only one minute. Then say, ''''Now make a sentence 
that has in it the three words '' work^ 'money,'' ' men.'' ^^ If neces- 
sary give {c) desert, rivers, lakes, in same way. 

Credit if satisfactory sentence is given in two of three trials. 
(See book.) 

6. Finding Rhymes. 

Say, " You know what a rhyme is, of course. A rhyme is a icord 
that sounds like another ivord. Two words rhyme if they end in the 
same sound. IJnderstandf'' Continue. ""Take the tioo tcorxls " haf 
and ' cat.^ They sound alike and so they m,al\e a rhxjrne. ' Hat!! 
' cat^ * rat!! ' bat! all rhyme with one another. Now^ I am going to 
give you a word and yon ivill have one minute to find as many 
words as you can that rhyme ivith it. The word is ' dwy! Nam^ 
all the words you can think of that rhyme ivith ' day! " If S. fails, 
repeat explanation, and give sample rhymes for day, as say, may, 
pay, hay. Otherw^ise. proceed, " Nou\ you have another minute to 
name all the words you can think of that rhyme with ' mill! " 
Same, if necessary, for spring. Do not repeat explanation after 
" mill " or " spring.'' 

Credit if three rhymes in one uiinute are given for each of two 
out of three words. 

411. 1. Naming the Months. 

Say, ''''Name all the months of the year!^ If correct, check In- 
asking, ^''What month comes before April P'' ''''Before July?'''' 
" Before November?-^ 

Credit if months are correctly named witliin 15 seconds witli not 
more than one error, and if two of three checks are correct. 

Alt. 2. Counting Value of Stamps. 

Say, " You know, of course, hoxo much a stamp like this costs 
(pointing to a 1-cent stamp). And you know hoio much one like 



56 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 

this costs (pointing to a 2-cent stamp). Nou\ how much money 
ivould it take to huy all these stam/psf'^ (showing three 1-cent 
stamps and three 2-cent stamps). Do not tell values, where not 
known ; if A^alues are known but sum is wrongly given, give second 
trial, saying, ^' Tell me how you got ity 

Credit if correct value is given in not over 15 seconds. 

X. 

1. Vocabulary. 

See page 66. 

2. Absurdities. 

'• / avi going to read a sentence tvhich has something foolish in 
it^ some nonsense. I want you to listen carefully and tell me what 
is foolish ahout it.'^'' After reading say, " What is foolish about 
thatf'' Give sentences twice if necessary, repeating exactly. If 
response is ambiguous, ask S. what he means. 

(«) A man said: "/ know a road from mjy house to the city which 
is down hill all the way to the city and down hill all the loay ha.ck 
home^ 

(h) An engineer said that the more cars he had on his train the 
faster he could go. 

{c) Yesterday the police found the hody of a girl cut into 18 
fieces. They helieve that she killed herself. 

(d) There was a railroad accident yesterday^ hut it was not very 
serious. Only 1^8 feople were killed. 

{e) A hicycle rider ^ being thrown from his bicycle in an accident., 
struck his head against a stone and was instantly killed. They picked 
him up and carried him to the hospital^ and they do not think he 
loill get well again. 

Credit if four responses out of five are satisfactory. 

3. Drawing Designs from Memory. 

Give S. pencil and paper, then say, " This card has two drawings 
on it. I am going to show them to you for ten seconds^ then I will 
take the card .axoay and let you draw from^ Tnemory what you have 
seen. Examine both drawings carefully and remember that yon have 
only ten seconds.'''' Show card X^ for 10 seconds, right side up. Have 
S. reproduce designs immediately, and note on his paper which is 
the top of his drawing. 

Credit if one design is reproduced correctly, with other at least 
half correct. (See scoring cards.) 

4. Reading and Report. 

Show card and say, " / want you to read this for me as nicely as 
you canJ^ Pronounce for S. all words he can not make out, allowing 
not over 5 seconds' hesitation. (Record reading time and errors.) 
When S. has finished, say, " Very well done. Nou\ I want you to tell 
me what you read. Begin at the first and tell everything you can 
remember.'^'' When S. stops, ask, ''And what else? Can you remem- 
ber any more of itf^' 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 57 

New York, | September 5th. | A fire | last night | burned | 
three houses | near the center | of the city. | It took some 
time I to put it out. | The loss | was fifty thousand dollars, | 
and seventeen families | lost their homes. | In saving | a girl | 
who was asleep | in bed, | a fireman | was burned | on the 
hands. 

Credit if selection is read within 35 seconds with not more than two 
errors and if report given contains at least eight '' memories *' as 
separated above. Minor changes in wording allowed. Scoring is 
done by placing thin paper over barred copy above and checking 
memories. 

5. Comprehension. 

Ask in order, 

(a) " What ought you to say when someofie asks your opinion about 
a person you don't hnoio very v.yellf " 

{h) " What ought you to do before undertaking {beginning) some- 
thing very important? ^^ 

{c) " Why should ice judge a person more by his actions than by 
his words? " 

May repeat but not change question except to substitute beginning 
in {b) in case undertaking seems not to be understood. 

Credit if two of three replies are satisfactory. (See book.) 

6. Naming Sixty Words. 

Say, " Now^ I want to see how Tnany different loords you can name 
in 3 minutes. When I say ready^ you nfiust begin and name the 
words as fast as you can^ and I will count them. Do you understand? 
Be sure to do your very best, and remember that just any words will 
do.) like ' clouds,'' ' dog,^ ' chair ^ ' happy ' — ready ; go ahead.'''' When- 
ever there is a pause of 15 seconds, say, " Go ahead, as fast as you can. 
Any words will doP Don't allow sentences or counting: if at- 
tempted, interrupt with " Counting (or sentences) not allowed. You 
must name sepay^ate loords. Go ahead. ^^ 

Credit if 60 Avorcls, exclusive of repetitions, are given in three 
minutes. 

Alt. 1. Repeating Six Digits. 

" A'^ow, listen. I am going to say over some numbers aiul after 1 am 
through I want you to say them exactly as I do. Listen closely and 
get them just rights Give (a) and if necessary ib). 

Credit if one set is given without error. 

Alt. 2. Repeating Sentences. 

Say, ''''Now, listen. I am go'ing to say something and after I am 
through I want you to say it over just as I do. Understand? Listen 
carefully and be sure to say exactly icha.t I say.'''' Repeat " Say ex- 
actly what I say " before reading each sentence. Do not re-read any 
sentence. 

Credit if one sentence out of three is repeated without error, or 
two with not more than one error each. 



58 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Alt. 3. Healy-Fernald Puzzle. 

Place frame (short side toward S.) and blocks on table and say, 
" / v:ant you to put these blocks in this frame so that air the space 
tcill he filled up. If you do it rightly^ they will all fit in and there 
will he no space left over. Go ahead.'''' Do not suggest hurrying. 
Note procedure, especially tendencies to repeat absurd moves, and 
moves which leave spaces obviously impossible to fill. 

Credit if S. fits blocks into place three times within a total time 
of five minutes for the three trials. 

XII. 

1. Vocabulary. 

See page 6G. 

2. Definitions: Abstract Words. 

Say, " What is pityf'' " What do we mean hy pityf'' etc. If re- 
sponse contains word to be defined, ask, '' Yes.^ hut lohat does it mean 
to pity som,e onef'' Same for revenge.^ charity., envy^ justice. Ques- 
tion S. if response is not clear. 

Credit if three of the five words are satisfactorily defined. (See 
book.) 

3. Ball and Field. 

Present " round field " on record blank with gate facing S. and say, 
" Let us suppose that your hasehall has been lost in this round field. 
You have no idea lohat part of the field it is in. You donH know 
what direction it caame from^ how it got there., nor loith what force it 
came. All you know is that the hall is lost som,ewhere in the field. 
Now^ take this pencil and mark out a path to show me how you u^ould, 
hwnt for the hall so (7.<? to he sure not to mh's it. Begin at the gate 
and show me what path you would take.'''' If S. stops, say, " But sup- 
pose you ha(ve not found it yet., ivMch direction loould you go next? " 

Credit in Year VIII for "inferior" plan (or better); in Years 
VIII and XII for " superior " plan. (See scoring card.) 

4. Dissected Sentences. 

Show card XII*, indicate first group of words, and say, " Here is 
a sentence that has the words all mixed up, so that they donH make 
any sense. If the %Dords were changed around in the r'lght order they 
would make a good sentence. Look carefully and see if you can tell 
me hov^ the sentence ought to read.'''' Do not hurry S., but allow only 
one minute. If S. fails on the first sentence, read it for him slowly 
and correctly, pointing at each word as you speak it. Same procedure 
for second and third, except that no help is given. 

Credit if two sentences of three are correct, or one correct and two 
nearly correct. (See book.) Time, one minute each. 

5. Interpretation of Fables. 

Present fables in order given below. Say. '^ You know what a fable 
is? You hafve heard fables? Fables., you know., are little stories 
which teach us a lesson. Now., I am.^ going to read a fahle to you. 
Listen carefully, and when I am through I tvill ask you to tell me 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



59 



what lesson the fable teaches us.^^ xVfter reading, say, " What lesson 
does that teach usf " Question S. if response is not clear. Ask also 
if fable has been heard before. Proceed with (Z>), (c), (c?), and (e) 
thus : " Here is another. Listen again and tell vie tohat lesson this 
fahle teaches us.^^ After each ask, " What lesson docs that teach usf '' 

(a) Hercules and the wagoner. 

A man was driving along a country road, when the wheels sud- 
denly sank in a deep rut. The man did nothing but look at the 
wagon and call loudly to Hercules to come and help him. Hercules 
came up, looked at the man, and said : " Put your shoulder to the 
wheel, my man, and whip up your oxen.'' Then he went away and 
left the driver. 

(b) The milkmaid and her plans. 

A milkmaid was carrying her pail of milk on her head, and was 
thinking to herself thus : '' The money for this milk will buy 4 hens ; 
the hens will lay at least 100 eggs ; the eggs will produce at least 75 
chicks ; and with the money which the chicks w ill bring I can buy a 
new dress to wear instead of the ragged one I have on.'' At this 
moment she looked down at herself, trying to think how she would 
look in her new dress ; but as she did so the pail of milk slipped from 
her head and dashed upon the ground. Thus all her imaginary 
schemes perished in a moment. 

(c) 7^ he fox and the crow. 

A croAv, having stolen a bit of meat, perched in a tree and held 
it in her beak. A fox, seeing her, wished to secure the meat, and 
spoke to the crow thus : " Hoav handsome you are I And I have 
heard that the beauty of your voice is equal to that of your form 
and feathers. Will you not sing for me. so that I nuiy judge 
w^hether this is true? " The crow was so pleased that she opened 
her mouth to sing and dropped the meat, which the fox immediately 
ate. 



(d) The farmer and the stork. 

A farmer set some traps to catch cranes which had been eating 
his seed. With them he caught a stork. The stork, which had not 
really been stealing, begged the farmer to spare his life, saying that 
he was a bird of excellent character, that he was not at all like the 
cranes, and that the farmer should have pity on him. But the 
farmer said: "I have caught you with these robbers, tlie cranes, 
and you have got to die with them." 

(e) The miller^ his son. arid the donkey. 

A miller and his son were driving their donkey to a neighboring 
town to sell him. They had not gone far when a child saw them 
and cried out: "What fools those fellows are to be trudging along 



60 PSYCHOLOGICAL* EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

on foot ^vlien one of them might be riding-." Tlie old man. hearing 
this, made his son get on the donkey, while he himself walked. 
Soon they came npon some men. " Look,'' said one of them, " see 
that lazy boy riding while his old father has to walk." On hear- 
ing this the miller made his son get off, and he climbed upon the 
donkey himself. Farther on they met a company of women, who 
shouted out : '' Why, you lazv old fellow, to ride along so com- 
fortably while your poor boy there can hardly keep pace by the side 
of you ! ■' Ancl so the good-natured miller took his boy up behind 
him and both of them rode. As they came to the town a citizen 
said to them, "Why, you cruel fellows! You two are better able 
to carry the poor little donkey than he is to carry you." " Very 
well," said the miller, " w^e will try." So both of them jumped to 
the ground, got som^e ropes, tied the donkey's legs to a pole and tried 
to carry him. But as they crossed the bridge the donkey became 
frightenecl, kicked loose, and fell into the stream. 

Credit in Year XII if score is 4 points or more; in Year XVI 
if score is 8 points or more. Allow 2 points for each fable for cor- 
rect, and 1 for partially correct response. (Note carefully scoring 
directions in book.) 

6. Five Digits Backwards. 

" Listen carejuUy ; I am going to read some numbers^ and I want 
you to say them backwards. For example^ if I should say 5 — 1 — 4, 
you %oould say ^ — 1 — 5. Do you understand? " Then, '"'Ready now; 
listen carefully^ and he sure to say the numbers backwards ^ If S. 
gives digits forwards, repeat instructions. If necessary, give (Z>) 
and (c), repeating each time, '''Ready now; listen carefully and be 
sure to say the numbers backwards?'' 

Credit if one set is repeated backw^arcls without error. 

7. Pictures; Interpretation. 

ShoAv in succession Dutch Home, River Scene, Post-Office, and 
Colonial House, saying each time, " Tell me what this picture is 
about. Explain this picture!''' May prompt with, " Go ahead^^ or 
" Explain what you m^eanP 

Credit if three of the four pictures are satisfactorily interpreted. 
(See book.) 

8. Finding Likenesses; Three Things. 

Say, "/ am going to naine three things which are alike in some 
way^ and I want you to tell m.e how they are alike. Snalce^ cow^ and 
sparrcno ; in what way are they alike f'''' May repeat or urge with, 
" Vm sure you can tell me how a snake^ a co%o^ and a sparrow ,are 
alike!'' but do not change form of question. If difference is given, 
say, " Vo, / want you to tell me how they are alike. In what way are 
a snake^ a cow^ and a sparrow alike? ''^ Same for (&) book.^ teacher., 
newspaper; {c) wool., cotton^ leather; (d) knife-blade, penny, piece 
of wire; (e) rose, potato, tree. 

Credit if any real similarity is given in three out of five trials. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 61 

XIV. 

1. Vocabulary. 

See page 66. 

2. Induction Test. 

(If XVIII ^ is to be given, it should precede this test.) Provide 
six sheets of tissue paper, 8| by 11 inches. Take the first sheet, and 
telling S. to watch what you do, fold it once, and in the middle of 
the folded edge cut out a small notch; then ask S. to tell you ho^o 
many holes there will he in the paper when it is unfolded. Whatever 
the anstcer, unfold the paper and hold it up broadside for S.'s in- 
spection. Xext, take another sheet, fold it once as before and say, 
" Now, when we folded it this way and tore out a piece, you remem- 
ber it made one hole in the paper. This time we will give the paper 
another fold and see how many holes we shall have.'''' Then proceed 
to fold the paper again, this time in the other direction, cut out a 
piece from the folded side, and ask how many holes there will he 
when the paper is vAifolded. Then unfold the paper, hold it up be- 
fore S. so as to let him see the result. Whatever the answer, proceed 
with the third sheet. Fold it once and say, " When ice folded it this 
way there was one hole.''^ Fold it again and say, " And lohen loe 
folded it this way there were two holesP Fold the paper a third 
time and say, " Now, I am folding it again. How many holes will it 
have this time lohen I unfold it? " Again unfold paper while S. 
looks on. Continue in the same manner with sheets, four, five, and 
six, adding one fold each time. In folding each sheet recapitulate 
results, saying (with the sixth, for example) : " When toe folded it 
this way there tvas one hole; when loe folded it again there were two; 
when we folded it again there were four; when we folded it again 
there were eight; when we folded it again there were sixteen; now 
tell me ho%o many holes there will he if loe fold it once moreT Avoid 
saying, *' When we folded it once, twice, three times." After sixth 
response, ask, " Can you tell m,e a rule hy which I could know each 
time how many holes there are going to hef'' 

Credit if answer *to sixth question is correct, and governing rule is 
correctly stated. 

3. President and King. 

Say, " There are three main diffei^ences hetween a president and a 
king; what are theyf'' If S. stops after one difference is given, 
urge him on, if possible, until three are given. 

Credit if two of the three correct answers are given. 

4. Problem Questions. 

Say, " Listen, and see if you can understand what I readP Then 
read the problem slowly and with expression. If necessary, re-read 
problem. 

{a) A man who was walking in the uwods near a city stopped sud- 
denly very much frightened, and then ran to the nearest policeman, 

saying, that he had just seen hanging from the limh of a tree a a 

what? 



62 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMIlSriNG IN THE AKMY. 

(h) My neighbor has teen having queer visitors. First, a doctor 
came to his house^ then a laioyer^ then a minister {preacher or jyriest), 
WJu/t do you think happened there? 

((?) An Indian icho had come to town for the first time in. his life 
saw a lohite man riding along the street. As the %ohite man rode hy^ 
the Indian said: " The white man is lazy ; he walks sitting down.'^'^ 
What was the ichite man Hding on that caused the Indian to say., 
^^ He walks sitting doicn^'f 

Credit if two of the three problems are satisfactorily answered. 

5. Arithmetical Reasoning. 

Give S. card XIY^. exposing problems one at a time. Have S. 
read each problem aloud and, with the printed problem still before 
him. find the answer without the use of pencil or paper. In the 
case of illiterates. E. reads each problem for S. two or three times. 

Credit if two of the three problems are correcth^ solved, within 
one minute each. 

6. Reversing Hands of Clock. 

Say. ^^ Suppose it is six-twenty -two o"^ clock., that is, twenty-two 
minutes after six, can you see in your mind ichere the large haiiid 
would he^ and where the small hand looiild hef'' " Now\ suppose 
the two hands of the clock were to trade places, so that the large 
hand takes the place luhere the small hand loas^ and the small hand 
takes the place where the large hand was, what time loould it then 
he?'^'' Eepeat the test with the hands at 8.08 (8 minutes after 8), 
and again with the hands at 2.46 (14 minutes before 3). 

Credit if two of the three problems are solved with reasonable ac- 
curacy. (See book). 

Alt. Repeating Seven Digits. 

" Noio listen. I am going to say over some numhers and after I aw, 
through, I want you to say them exactly as I do. Listen closely a.nd 
get them just HghtP Give («) and if necessary (&). 

Credit if one set is rejDroduced without error. 

XVI. — ^^ Average AdultP 

1. Vocabulary. 

See page 66. 

2. Interpretation of Fables. 

See page 58. 

3. Differences Between Abstract Terms. 

Ask " What is the difference between — 
(a) " Laziness and idleness? 
(h) '' Evolution and revolution? 

(c) '' Paver ty and misery? 

( d) " Character and reputation? " 

If answer is ambiguous, get S. to explain. If he merely defines the 
words, say " Yes, but I want you to tell me the difference between 
and ." 

Credit if three of the four answers are given correctly. (See 
book.) 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 63 

4. Enclosed Boxes. 

Show S. a small cardboard box, and say, " You see this hox; it 
has two smaller boxes iiiside of it, and each one of the smaller hoxes 
contains a little tiny hox. Hoin many hoxes are there altogether^ 
counting the hig one? Eememher, first the large hox, then two smaller 
ones, and each of the smaller ones contains a little tiny hox.'''' Allow 
one-half minute, record answer, then show second box. saying, *' This 
hox ha^ tico smaller hoxes inside, and each of the smaller hoxes con- 
tains two tiny hoxes. How many altogether? RememJ)er, first the 
large hox, then two smaller ones, and each smaller one contains two 
tiny hoxes?'' Similarly for (^) and {^d), using three and three, and 
four and four. 

Credit if three of the four problems are solved correctly within 
one-half minute each. 

5. Six Digits Backwards. 

Say " Listen carefully. I am^ going to read some numbers^ and I 
want you to say them hachwards. For examjyle, if I should say 
5 — 1 — i, you would say 4 — 1 — 5. Do you under stmulf'''' Then. 
" Ready now ; listen carefully, and he sure to say the numhers ha,ch- 
wards?'' If S. gives digits forwards repeat instructions. If neces- 
sary, give ih) and (<?), repeating each time, ** Ready now; listen 
carefully a/nd he sure to say the numhers hachwards.'''' 

Credit if one set is repeated backwards without error. 

6. Code. 

Show S. the code given on card XYI ^ Say, " ^ee these diagrams 
here? Look and you will see that they contain all the letters of the 
alphabet. Now, examine the arrangement of the letters. They go 
(pointing) ah c,d ef,g h i, j h I, m n o, p g r,s t u v. lo x y z. You 
see the letters in the first two diagrams are arranged in the up-and- 
down order (pointing again), and the letters in the other tioo dia- 
grams run in just the opposite way from the hands of a clock 
(pointing). Look again and you will see that the second diagram 
is just like the first, except that each letter has a dot with it, a/nd 
that the last diagram is like the third except that here, also, each 
letter has a dot. Note, all of this represents a code; that is, a secret 
language, it is a real code, one that was used in the Civil War for 
sending secret messages. This is the vmy it works: We draw the 
lines which hold a letter, hut leave out the letter. Here^ for ex- 
ample, is the %oay we would write ' spy.'' " Then write the w^ords 
" spy " and " war," pointing out carefully where each letter comes 
from, and emphasizing the fact that the dot must be used in addi- 
tion to the lines in writing any letter in the second or fourth dia- 
gram. Then add: '*/ am going to have you write something for 
me; remember, now, how tlie letters go, first (pointing, as before) 
ah c, d e f, g h i, then j kl,mno,pqr, then s t u v, then w x y z. 
And don't forget the dots for the letters in this diagram and this 
one'''' (pointing). At this point, take aw^ay the diagrams, give S. 
pencil and paper, and tell him to Avrite the words " come quickly." 
Say nothing about hurrying. Do not permit S. to reproduce the 
code and then to copy the code letters from his reproduction. 

Credit if words are Avritten within six minutes with not more than 
two errors, omission of dot countino: as half error. 



64 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Alt. 1. Repeating Sentences. 

Say. ** Xoii\ listen. I am, (jolng to say soTnething and after I 
am through I icaiit you to say it over just a^ I do. Understand? 
Listen carefully and he sure to say exactly ioha,t I say.'''' Repeat 
''Say exactly what I say''' before reading each sentence. Do not 
re-read any sentence. 

Credit if one sentence is repeated without a single error. 

Alt. 2. Comprehension of Physical Relations. 

{a) Draw a horizontal line 6 or 8 inches long. An inch or two 
above it draw a horizontal line about an inch long parallel to the 
first. Say, " The long line represents the perfectly level ground of 
a field^ and the short line represents a cannon. The cannon is pointed 
horizontally (on a level) and is fired across this perfectly level field.'''' 
After it is clear that these conditions of the problem are compre- 
hended, add, ''Note, suppose that this cannon is fired off a^nd that 
the hall comes to the ground, at this jyoint here (pointing to the 
farther end of the line which represents the field). Take this pencil 
and draw a line which will shoio tohat path the cannoii hall ivill take 
from the time it leaves the mouth of the cannon till it strikes the 
ground.'^'' 

(h) Say, " You knotv, of course, that water holds up a fish that is 
placed in it. Well, here is a prohlem: Suppose we have a hucket 
which is partly full of water. We place the hucket on the scales 
and find that with the %oater in it it weighs exactly Jf5 pou/nds. 
Then we put a 5-pou/iid fish into the hucket of water. Now., what 
loill the whole thing uwighf " If S. responds correctly, say, " How 
can this he correct, since the toater itself holds up the fishf'' 

{c) " You know, do you not, lohat it means when they say a 
gun 'carries 100 yards? "^ It means that the hullet goes 100 yards 
hefore it drops to amount to anything P When this is clear, proceed, 
" Now, suppose a man is shooting at a mark about the size of a quart 
can. His rifle carries perfectly more than 100 yards. With such 
a gun is it any harder to hit the mark at 100 yards than it is at 
50 yards? '" 

Credit if two of the three problems are satisfactorily solved. (See 
book.) 

XYIII — ''Superior adult.'''' 

1. Vocabulary. 

See page 66. 

2. Paper-Cutting Test. 

Take a piece of paper 6 inches square and say. " Watch carefully 
w)hat I do. See, I fold the paper this way (folding it once over in 
the middle). Then I fold it this way (folding it again in the 
middle, but at right angles to the first fold). Noio, I will cut out a 
notch right here'''' (indicating). Cut notch, keeping fragments out 
of view. Leave folded paper exposed, but pressed flat against tabJe. 
Then give S. a pencil and a second sheet of paper like the one al- 
ready used and say, " Take this piece of paper and make a drawing 
to show how the other sheet of paper loould look if it were un- 
folded. Drav: lines to show the creases in the paper and show what 
results from the cutting.'''' Do not permit S. to fold second sheet, 
and do not sav, " draw the holes." 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 65 

Credit if creases are correctly represented, with correct number 
of holes correctly located. 

3. Repeating Eight Digits. 

Say, "Now, listen. I am going to say over some numbers and 
after I am. through,! want you to say them exactly as I do. Listen 
closely and get them just right."''' (jrive (a), and if necessary {h) 
and (c). 

Credit if one set is reproduced without error. 

4. Repeating Thought of Passage. 

Say, "/ am going to read a little selection of about six or eight 
lines. When I am through I will ajsh you to repeat m much of it as 
you can. It doesnH tnahe any difference whether you remember the 
exact words or not, but you must listen carefully so that you can tell 
me everything it says.'''' Read (a), and if necessary (6), recording 
response verbatim. Urge S. to give thought of selection in his own 
words, if he hesitates. 

{a) Tests, such as %oe are no\o making, are of value both for the 
advancement of science and for the information of the person %oho 
is tested. It is important for science to learn how people differ 
and on what factors these differences depend. If we can separate 
the influence of heredity from the influence of environment, we may 
be able to apply our knouledge so as to guide human development. 
We may thus in some cases^ correct defects and develop abilities 
lohich we might otherwise neglect. 

(b) Many opinions have been given on the value of life. Some 
call it good, others call it b\ad. It would be nearer correct to say that 
it is mediocre; for on the one hand^ our happiness is never as great 
as we should like, and on the other hand our misfortunes are never 
as great as our enemies loould ivish for us. It is this mediocrity of 
life lohich prevents it from being radically unjust. 

Credit if main, thoughts of one of the selections are given in rea- 
sonably consecutive order. (See book.) 

5. Seven Digits Backwards. 

Say, " Listen carefully, I awj going to read some numbers, and 
I loant you to say them backwards. For example, if I should say 
5 — 1 — Jf, you would say ^ — 1 — 5. Do you understand? " Then, 
" Ready noiv, listen carefully, and be sure to say the numbers back- 
loards.''^ If S. gives the digits forward, repeat instructions. If neces- 
sary, give {b) and (c), repeating each time: "Ready now, listen 
carefully and be sure to say the numbers backioard.'''' 

Credit if one set is repeated backAvards Avithout error. 

6. Ingenuity Test. 

State problem {a) orally, repeating it if S. does not respond 
promptly. Do not allow S. to use pencil or paper, and ask him to 
give his solution orally as he works it out. Record his statement in 
full. If S. resorts to some such method as " fill the 3-pint vessel 
two-thirds full," or " I would mark the inside of the 5-pint vessel 
so as to show where 4 pints come to," etc., inform him that such a 
method is not allowable; that this w^ould be guessing, since he could 

72219—18 5 



66 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



not be sure when the 3-pint vessel was two-thirds full, or whether 
he had marked off his 5-pint vessel accuratel3^ Tell him he must 
measure out the water without any guesswork and explain also that 
it is a fair problem, not a " catch." Say nothing about pouring 
from one vessel to another, but if S. asks whether this is permissible, 
say "2/65." If S. has not solved (a) correctly within five minutes, 
explain the solution in full and proceed to (h). State (h) orally 
and allow^ S. five minutes for its solution. Do not explain in case of 
failure. If S. succeeds on either (a) or (Z>), but not with both, 
give problem (c) orallj^, allowing five minutes for this also. 

(a) '^A mother sent her boy to the river and told him to bring 
back exactly 7 pints of water. She gave Mm a 3-j)int vessel and a 
5-pint vessel. Shoio me how the boy can measure out exactly 7 pints 
of icater^ usiiig nothing but these two vessels and not guessing at 
the amount. You should begin by filling the 5-pint vessel first. 
Reinemher^ you have a 3-pint vessel and a 5-pint vessel^ and you 
mMst bring back exactly 7 pints?'' 

Same formula for (&) and (c). 

Credit if two of the three problems are solved correctly, each 
within five minutes. 

Vocabulary. 



" / want to find out how many words you knovo. Listen; and 
when I say a word^ you tell me ichat it means. What is an orange T^ 
etc. If S. can read, let him see the words on the vocabulary card. 
Continue list till 8 to 10 successive words are missed. If S. thinks 
formal definition is required, E. may say : " Just tell me in your own 
words; say it any way you please. All I %vant is to find out lohether 

you know what a ^s." E. may ask S. to explain Avhat he means 

if it is not clear. 



orange 

bonfire 

roar 

gown 

tap 

6 scorch 

7 puddle 

8 envelope 

9 straw 

10 rule 

11 haste 

12 afloat 

13 eyelash 

14 copper 

15 health 

16 curse 

17 guitar 

18 mellow 

19 pork 

20 impolite 

21 plumbing 

22 outward 

23 lecture 

24 dungeon 

25 southern 



26 noticeable 

27 muzzle 

28 quake 

29 civil 

30 treasury 

31 reception 

32 ramble 

33 skill 

34 misuse 

35 insure 

36 stave 

37 regard 

38 nerve 

39 crunch 

40 juggler 

41 majesty 

42 brunette 

43 snip 

44 apish 

45 sportive 

46 hysterics 

47 mars 

48 repose 

49 shrewd 

50 forfeit 



51 peculiarity 76 

52 coinage 77 

53 mosaic 78 

54 bewail 79 

55 disproportionate 80 

56 dilapidated 81 

57 charter 82 

58 conscientious 83 

59 avarice 84 
60- artless 85 

61 priceless 86 

62 swaddle 87 

63 tolerate 88 

64 gelatinous 89 

65 depredation 90 

66 promontory 91 

67 frustrate 92 

68 milksop 93 

69 philanthropy 94 

70 irony 95 

71 lotus 96 

72 drabble \ 97 

73 harpy 98 

74 embody 99 

75 infuse 100 



flaunt 

declivity 

fen 

ochre 

exaltation 

incrustation 

laity 

selectman 

sapient 

retroactive 

achromatic 

ambergris 

casuistry 

paleology 

perfunctory 

precipitancy 

theosophy 

piscatorial 

sudorific 

parterre 

homunculus 

cameo 

shagreen 

limpet 

complot 



Note. — To get the entire vocabulary, multiply the number of cor- 
rect definitions by 180. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMV. 07 

(b) ADAPTATIONS" FOR USE WITH ILLITERATES. 

In the examination of an illiterate subject only those tests in each 
year-group which are starred in the record booklet should be given. 
When only the starred tests are given, credits should be assigned m 
accordance with the following table : 

Years 3 to 10 3 points (or inontlis) per test. 

Year 12 5 points (or months) per test. 

Year 14 6 points (or months) per test. 

Year 16 ^ 71 points (or months) per test. 

Year 18 9 points (or months) per test. 

The probable error of a mental age score derived by the scale as 
thus abbreviated is approximately 7^ months, as contrasted with a 
probable error of less than 6 months for the unabbreviated scale as 
applied to unselected adults. 

(c) EXPRESSING AND INTERPRETING RESULTS. 

As this is an age scale, the responses are ordinarily scored in terms 
of months. They may also be scored in terms of -points by those who 
prefer this method. AVhen this is done, each test is given a point 
value corresponding to its value in months. A subject is credited 
with the full number of points for each test below the year-group 
actually given, and in addition %vith 2Jf points for years 1 arid 2. He 
is also credited with the actual number of points scored in the year- 
groups given. It is thus possible to score as' high as 30 points 
(months) in year XVI and 36 in 3^ear XVIII, making a total possi- 
ble score of 234 points, or a mental age of 19 years, 6 months. If 
fewer than the regular number of tests are used from a given year- 
group, each test should be assigned a proportionately higher point 
value. If more than the regular number are used, each test should 
be assigned a proportionately lower value. Where half credit is 
allowed for a response, half the number of points is given. 

The results of Stanford-Binet examinations are to be expressed in 
the following ways: (1) Mental age in years and decimal of a year; 
(2) letter rating. 

Mental ages correspond to the letter ratings as follows : 

A 18. -19.5 

B___ 16. 5-17. 9 

C+ . 15. -16.4 

C 1 13. -14.9 

C— 11. -12.9 

D 9. 5-]0. 9 

D— Below 9. 5 

Subjects obtaining a score of 10 years (120 points) or more may 
ordinarily be recommended for regular military training; subjects 
between 8 and 10 years (96 to 119 points) should be considered for 
assignment to service organization or Development Battalion; sub- 
jects below 8 years (96 points) should be considered for discharge. 

Grade E should be given to all men who are recommended by the 
examiner for discharge, Development Battalion, or service organiza- 
tion, and to such men only. All men whose intelligence is deemed 
satisfactory for regular military duty shall be given rating of D— 
or higher. 



4. PERFORMANCE SCALE EXAMINATION. 

{a) PROCEDURE. 

Test 1.— The Ship Test. 

Materials. — A frame and ten pieces which, when ])roperly fitted 
together, form a ship. 

Directions. — E. shows S. the frame with the ])ieces j^roj^erly fitted 
therein, and says : " This is a picture of a ship. Look at it carefully,'''' 




Figure 1. 

S. is allowed to look at the picture for 10 seconds: then E. withdraws 
the picture from view, removes the pieces, and presents the empty 
frame and the pieces arranged as in Eig. 1. The i)ieces may 
be numbered on the edge toward E. from left to right to indicate 

G9 



70 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

their positions. The frame is next the subject. E. says: ^^ Put these 
pieces in the frame as quickly as you can so as to make the ship you 
ju^t satv."^^ 

S. is given five minutes, and is allowed to make any changes he 
wishes within the time limit; but E. must not suggest the changes. 

Scoring. — A score of one is allowed for each of the lower or upper 
pieces, if placed in the lower or upper portion of the frame, i. e., 
the " water " pieces at the bottom and the " sky " pieces at the top, 
except that no credit is given for an inverted piece. In addition to 
this, a score of one is given to each piece that is in its correct rela- 
tive position in the upper or low^er row. The maximum score for ac- 
curacy is thus 20 po;nts. 

If the score for accuracy is 18 or more, additional credit is given 
for time as follows : 

Time. Credit. 

0-20 5 

21-30 4 

31-50 3 

51-80 2 

81-120 1 

121-300 

The maximum raw score is, therefore, 25 points. 

Test 2. — Manikin and Feature Profile. 

Materials. — (a) Six pieces Avhich when put together represent the 
conventional figure of a man. 

(h) Eight pieces which when put together form the figure of a 
human head. 

Directions. — {a) The pieces are placed before S., as in Fig. 2. 
Each arm and each leg is placed at the opposite side of the body from 
the place where it fits. E. says, " Put this together as qu/ckly as 
you can.'''' 

(b) The pieces are placed before S., as in. Fig. 2. The tliree pieces 
forming the face are separated from each other by the four pieces 
forming the ear. E. says, " Put this together a.s quickly as you eanP 

The time limit for {a) is two minutes^ for {h) five minutes. Spon- 
taneous changes are allowed within the time limit. S. is not told 
what the pieces make. If S. scores 3 or less on {a) , E. fits it together 
correctly and then goes on to {h). If the score on {a) is 0, {h) need 
not be given. 

Scoring. — The end products are scored as follows: 

Points. 
{a) One point for each piece in correct position; i e., for a perfect per- 
formance 5 

One or both arms not exactly fitting joints 4 

One reversal of arms or legs : 3 

Two reversals, arms and legs 2 

Legs and arms interchanged, or any other result that looks like a man 1 

Poorer than this, not resembling a man 

{h) One point for each face piece in the correct position, 1 point for a partly 
correct ear — i. e., one, two, or three pieces in the correct place — and 2 points 
for a completely correct ear, making a total for accuracy of 5 points. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



71 



ISl^roRE FBOflLB 





A 



M 





K^ 



Figure 2. 



72 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 

Credit is given for time only if the score for accuracy is on (a) 4 
or 5 points, on (h) 5 points. Then credit as follows: 

Time. 
(a) (&) Credit. 

0-10 0- 30 5 

11- 15 31- 40 4 

16- 20 41- 60 3 

21- 30 61- 80 2 

31- 50 81-120 1 

51-120 121-300— , - 

The maximum raw score is, therefore, 20 points on (a) and (h) 
together. 

Test 3. — Cube Imitation. 

Matenals. — (1) Four 1-inch cubes fastened 2 inches apart to a 
wooden base. Both cubes and base are painted a dark red. The 
cubes are numbered 1 to 4 from right to left. (2) A fifth cube of the 
same size unattached and similarly painted. (3) Ten imitation prob- 
lems (a to j) , as printed on the record sheet. 

Directions. — E. places the cube board before S., with the numbered 
side of the cubes directed away from him, and says: " Watch care- 
fully and then do just ichat I do^ E. next with the fifth cube taps 
the attached blocks in a predetermined order, as, for example, in 
{a) 1 — 2 — 3 — 4, at the rate of one fer second. He now lays the tap- 
ping cube down before S., midway between the second and third 
cubes, but nearer to S. than the cube board, and says : " Bo thatP' If 
in the first problem S. taps 4^ — 3^ — 2 — 1 instead of the reverse, E 
credits the response and says: "A^(9, hegin here'''^ (pointing to 1). 

Parts {h) to (y) are given in order unless S. fails in 5 successive 
parts. In this event the test is discontinued. It is important that 
the rate of tapping should not be faster than one per second. 

Scoring. — The responses are recorded as right ( + ) or wrong (— ) ; 
and 1 point is given for each success. The maximum raw score is 
10 points. 

Test 4. — Cube Construction. 

Materials. — (1) A block of wood (model 1) 1 by 3 by 3 inches, 
painted a dark red on the four sides, not on the upper or lower sur- 
faces, and cut to a depth of 2 mm., so that it closely resembles a com- 
posite of 9 small cubes. (2) Nine 1-inch cubes necessary for the con- 
struction of model 1, four painted on two sides, four painted on one 
side, and one not painted. (3) A block of wood (model 2), same size 
as model 1 but painted on the top as well as the four sides. (4) Nine 
1-inch cubes necessary for construction of model 2. (5) A 2-inch cube 
(model 3), unpainted and cut on the six surfaces so that it looks like 
a composite of eight small cubes. (6) Eight 1-inch cubes painted on 
three sides for the construction of model 3. 

Directions. — E. presents model 1, and says: ^^You see this Uock. 

Notice that it is painted on the sides hut not on the top or the hottor)i; 

and you see these smaller blocks (E. presents blocks described under 

(2), above) partly painted and partly unpainted. These nine blocks 

can be put together so as to make one just like this.'''' E. puts the 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 73 

blocks together, pointing to the painted surface or surfaces of each 
cube as he fits it in position. 

(a) E. then presents the same model and blocks in irregular order, 
and says: '' A^otv, you fit the Mocks together' so as to make one like 
this:' 

(b) E. now presents model 2 and the blocks for its construction 
and says : " Now^ put these blocks together so as to make one just like 
this. Notice that it is painted on the edges and on the top hut not 
on the bottom^ 

{c) E. presents model 3 and says: " You see this block; notice that 
it is not painted anywhere ; and you see these smaller blocks (present 
blocks described under (6) above) that have three sides painted and 
three not painted. Now^ I want you to fit these eight blocks together 
so as to make one just like this. Remember.^ it is not painted on the 
bottom,.^ top^ or sides. "^^ 

With a stop watch E. takes time in seconds for assembling the 
cubes. He also counts the number of moves. A move is to be under- 
stood as a placement in some position designed to complete the struc- 
ture. If parts of a structure are assembled separately, putting such 
parts together does not count an additional move. If the blocks are 
fitted together in the hand, the moves are counted just as they are if 
assembled on the table. Turning a block over or otherwise "shifting 
its position in the structure is counted a move, but turning it over in 
the fingers, picking it up, and f)lacing it upon the table are not to be 
counted moves. S. is penalized sufficiently for such behavior by the 
longer time. 

Time for work on each part, two minutes. If S. assembles blocks 
before time is up, allow spontaneous corrections, counting extra time 
and additional moves. Each block changed counts one move as be- 
fore. The time should be taken when S. indicates verbally or other- 
wise that he has finished. 

Scoring. — No credit is to be given for time, if the blocks are not 
all assembled ; but if they are, credit as follows : 

(a) •(&) and (c) 

Seconds. Seconds. Credit. 

1- 10 1- 20 - 5 

11- 25 21- 30 1- 4 

26- 50 31- 50 3 

51- 80 51- 80 2 

81-120 81-120 1 

No matter whether S. has finished or not, count each misplaced 
block as three additional moves and each unassembled block as six 
additional moves, and credit total moves as follows: 

(a) and (&) (c) 

Moves. Moves. Credit. 

9 8 ,— 5 

10-11 9-10 4 

12-15 11-15 3 

16-25 16-25 L 2 

26-50 26-50 1 

Note that the minimum number of moves is nine for {a) and (6), 
and eight for {c) ; that no credit is given for over 50 moves; and 
that the maximum raw score is 10 points for each part, or a total 
of 30. 



74 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Test 5. — Form Board. 

Materials. — See illustration of problems, Fig. 3, for identification 
of the materials. 

Directions. — E. places the board before S... arranged as shown in 
" demonstration." " E." and " S." in this figure indicate the relative 
positions of examiner and subject. E. says : " These blocks can 
he changed aroiDid so ax to niaJxe room for this extra square^ like 
this.'^ E. proceeds to solve the problem in the minimum number of 
moves, making sure that S. is attending. 

{a) E. now presents the board arranged for problem A, saying: 
" Without 'making any more mooes than you have to^ change these 
blocks around so you can fnd a "place for the extra squcure (pointing 
to square). Don t have any blocks left orer. Ready — go ahead:'' 

(b) E. now presents the board arranged for problem B, saying: 
" / want you to change these blocks arounel so you can find places for 
these two extrei squares (pointing to them). Ready — go ahead. "^"^ 

{c) E. presents the board arranged for problem C, saying: ''''Note 
I want you to change the blocks around so you can fin el places for 
these four extra blocks. Reeuly — go ahead. ^^ 

E. records the time in seconds from start to finish, and counts the 
number of moves. A on ore is to be understooel as placing or tryinq to 
place a block in some position on the board. Taking a block out of 
position, and placing a block upon the table are not counted as moves. 

Time for work on (<'/)• and (?;), two niinntes each; on (c), three 
minutes. If (a) is not solved in the time alloAved, E. demonstrates 
that correct solution before going on to {b). 

Scoring. — If a problem is not solved within the time limit, score 
that part 0; but if a correct solution has been accompllsheeU give 
credit for time and for moves as follows: 

]\[OVE.S.' - TIME. 

(o) and 
(o) (&) (c) Credit. (6) (c) Credit. 

8 5 . 0-10 0- 20— 5 

9 4 11- 20 21- 40 4 

3 5 10-11 3 ' 21- 40 41- 70 3 

4 G 12-14 2 1 41- 70 71-110 2 

5-7 7-10 15-20 1 71-120 111-180 1 

Xote that the minimum number of moves for problems {a)^ (b), 
and (c) is 3, 5, and 8, respectively, and that the maximum raw scores 
are 8, 8, and 10, or a total of 26 points. 

The examiner will find it advantageous to make a diagram of. 
the arrangement of the blocks for each problem (as in Fig. 3), and 
paste it on the screen between him and the subject. He can then copy 
the pattern on the boai'd out of view of the subject, and with a little 
practice, can do it \ery expeditiously — often in less than 30 seconds. 

Test 6. — Designs. 

Materieds. — The five plates of designs on i)p. 98 to 106. E. pro- 
vides Si with pencil and paper. 

Directlems. — The designs are given in order, («), (&), ((?), {d). 
Formula for {a) and ib) \ "/ am going to show you a draioing. 
You loill have just ten seconds to look at it; then I shall take it away 



psvciioLoracAL examining in the army. 



75 



DS&RBORS POBM BOARD Ve> 3. 



Sbad*4 pari* lndi««it9 unflll«d spAoea. 




DE1KW3TRATI0I. 




FSOBLBH A. 




• • 



FBOBUEK B 




I • 



PBOBLBM C 



Figure & 



76 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 

and let you draio it from memory. DonH begin to draw till I say 
' go: " 

Formula for {c) and {d) : '^This time I shall show you two draw- 
ings. You loill have only ten seconds to look at them.^ then I shall 
take them away and you arc to draw them hoth from memory. "^"^ 

Before exposing the designs, E. ssljs: '^ Ready; look closely. ^^ 
When designs are removed, E. says : " (r6>." Designs are exposed 
with greatest length of page horizontal, and with front of Guide 
toward E. The time limit is 2 minutes, but S. is not stopped or 
penalized if he appears to have the correct plan and is carrying 
it out. If the raw score on (a), (h). and (c) together is less than 3, 
(d) need not be given. 

Scoring. — Emphasis is put upon reproduction of the plan of the 
designs rather than upon the neatness of the drawing. Credit as 
follows : 

{a) 1. Two lines crossed, four flags 1 

2. Correctly facing one another ' 1 

3. Accuracy (lines nearly equal, nearly bisected, nearly at right an- 

gles; flags nearly square) 1 

Total possible points, 3. 

(&) 1. Large square with two diameters 1 

2. Four small squares within a large square 1 

3. Two diameters in each small square 1 

4. Sixteen dots, each alone in a small square 1 

5. Accuracy of proportion (width of spaces around the four small 

squares between I and i the width of the 16 smallest squares) 1 

6. If design is complete but with superfluous squares or lines, count 

only 3 points. 

Total possible points, 5. 
See Fig. 4 for some common variations. 
{&) A rectangle with approximately vertical lines 

1. Dividing it approximately equally (into not over 6 parts )"" 1 

2. Dividing it into 4 parts 1 

Total possible points, 2, 
(c^) A rectangle with approximately vertical lines 

1. Dividing it into parts at least 3 of which diminii^h in size to the 

right • . — 1 

2. Dividing it into 6 parts _ 1 

Total possible points, 2. 
{d^) 1. Large diamond with small diamond inside crosswise with its ver- 
tices approximately coincident with obtuse angles of large dia- 
mond ; or large diamond with small diamond inside with sides 
approximately parallel to those of large diamond (alternative 
to 1) - 1 

2. A third diamond with its vertices approximately coincident with 

the obtuse angles of the second : 3. 

3. Accuracy (the proper lines very nearly parallel and the acute an- 

gles of diamonds all nearly equal) 1 

Total possible points, 3. 
{d^) 1. A large square with sides approximately equal, and small square 

inscribed 1 

2. A third square inscribed in second square approximately bisect- 
ing sides of second square 1 

Total possible points, 2. 

The maximum raw score for entire test, 17 points. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



77 



Scoring of De^igna 











1 Point 




1 





• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


■ 


1 


• 


• 


• 


• 


* 


• 


• 


» 


5 Point.: 


, 1 ' 

• • 


• • 






HH 
HH 


• • 



3 Points 




1 Point 




• • • • 

• • • • 



1 Point 



4 Points 



• * 

• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 

• • 



• • • • 

• « • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 



3 PoiT\t»5 2 Points 

(No Bot^, 2 Points) (No Dots, 1 Point) 






• » # • 

• • • • 

• • • 



2 Points 



3 Points 






1 Point Z Points 3 Points 



Figure 4. 



78 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 

Test 7.— The Digit Symbol Test. 

Materials. — See page 3 of record blank. 

Dii'ections. — ^The part of the first row marked sainple is used for 
demonstration. E, says: '"You see these numbers and the little mark 
below each number (pointing to the row at the top of the page). 
Noio^ I leant you to fut in each one of these squares (pointing to 
the empty squares in the three rows) the little mark that ought to 
go there, like this: Beloio 2 put this little mark (beginning at 2 in 
the sample), below 7, this; below -5, this;'^ etc. After doing five of 
the samples E pauses and asks: "Now^ ivhat should I put hereP'' in- 
dicating the next empt}^ square ) . If S answers correctly, E finishes 
the samples himself ; if S fails, E tells him and repeats the question 
with the next sample. After finishing the demonstration, E says: 
''^yow^ you begin here a)ul fill (is many squares w^^ you can before I 
call timey 

Time, 2 minutes. 

Scoring. — The score is the number of squares filled correctly in 
the time limit. Maximum raAv score, G7 points. 

Test 8.— The Maze. 

Materials. — The four mazes (a), (Z>), (<?), and (cZ) on page 4 of 
the record blank and maze \a) on page 3 for demonstration. 

Directions. — E shoAvs S demonstration maze and says: ''''You see 
these lines. Nou\ I am going to begin here at S and mark loith my 
pencil the shortest way out without crossing any lines. Watch ca.re- 
fidly?'' E places sheet so that the bottom of the maze is tow^ard S, 
and traces the way out, calling attention to the possibility of taking 
the Avrong path at one or two of the critical points. E says: ''''You 
see, if I shoxdd go this way, it uwukl not be the shortest way out. 1 
should have to turn back.''"' E then presents test maze {a) on page 4 
and says : ''''Now, with your pencil begin at S and mark the shortest 
IV ay out as quickly as you can. Do not cross any lines and do not 
turn back unless you have to. Ready — Go ahead.'''' 

If S crosses a line, not through carele.ssness, E says: '^You have 
crossed a line here. You see it is not an open space. Begin here (in- 
dicating a point on the pencil mark just before it crossed the line) 
and see if you can find, a path out vnthout crossing any lines.''' In- 
scoring, S is penalized 1 point for each line crossed as above. 

Mazes (Z>), (c), and {d) should be presented in the same way as 
(«) except that no further demonstration is allowed. Time limit for 
each maze. 2 nrhinutes. If the score on {a) and {b) is 0, the test may 
be discontinued- 

Scoring. — Time is recorded in seconds from start signal to suc- 
cessful exit. If this occurs within the time limit, credit for time is 
given for each maze as follows: 

Time. Credit. 

0-20 3 

21-40 2 

41-70 "I 

71-120 . 

Whether S finishes in the time limit or not, credit is giyen for the 
degree of success he has attained as follows: Each maze is divided 



x^ 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



79 



into five successive steps, which are indicated by dotted lines crossing 
the path of the maze in the key maze. Fig. 5. A credit of 1 point is 
given for each step successfully accomplished; i. e., for each imag- 
inary dotted line crossed, making a total of 5 points for each maze. 
The openings of " all blind alleys are indicated by heavy black lines 
across the path of the maze.- A penalty of 1 point is given for each 





1 










• 


1 


1 


- '"-^ -1 1 




n ' 1 




1 1 


















vs 



Figure 5. Kev mazes. 



imaginary heavy line crossed. Thus the score equals the nurriber of 
dotted Jiae^ crossed minus the number of heavy lines crossed^ and 
maze lines crossed not through carelessness (see above) . Any negati ve 
score thus obtained counts as zero. (No matter how many times any 
dotted line or heavy line is crossed, only one credit or penalty is given 
therefor.) 

Maximum raAv score, 32 points. 



80 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 

Test 9. — Picture Arrangement. 

Materials. — FiA^e sets of " Foxy Grandpa " pictures, one set for 
demonstration, and four for actual tests. 

Directions. — E. presents demonstrational set {x) in a row in the 
order 4 — 2 — 6 — 3 — 1 — 5 and says : " These pictures tell a funny story 
if they are placed in the right order. '''^ E. then proceeds to arrange the 
pictures properl3\ telling the story as he does so, and calling subject's 
attention to the proper sequence of the important details. He next 
removes this set, and presents set (a), saying: " No%d see hoio quickly 
you can change these pictures around so as to make them tell a good 
story.'''' S. is not told if he is wrong, but E. goes on to the next set. 
Sets (&) to {d) are presented in the same way. The sets are shown 
in a row in the order 4 — 2 — 6 — 3 — 1 — 5 and 5 — 1 — 3—6 — 2 — 4 alter- 
nately. The time limit for each set is three minutes. 

Scoring. — E. records the time and the arrangement for each set; 
and gives a credit of 1 point for each pair of pictures in correct juxta- 
position, i. e., a maximum of 6 points for accuracy for each set. 
When, however, the error in arrangement consists only in the reversal 
of one, two, or three juxtaposed pairs, a penalty of 1 point is given 
for each such reversal. Thus a credit of 4 points is obtained for 
arrangement 1^2 — 4 — 3 — 5 — 6, wdiich would receive only 2 points 
credit for correctly juxtaposed pairs. 

1^0 credit is given for time unless the arrangement is correct. Then 
credit as follows : 

Time. Credit. 

1- 30 3 

31- 60 2 

61-120 1 1 

121-180 

Maximum raw score, 32 points. 

Test 1)0. — Picture Completion. 

Materials. — Two boards upon which are depicted successive scenes 
from the day's activity of a boy; and 60 small blocks from which are 
selected the pieces to complete the pictures. 

Directions. — The boards are placed before S., part 2 at his right. 
The 60 small pieces are placed above the boards in the box arranged 
in a predetermined order as indicated in the box. In this arrange- 
ment ambiguous pieces are located in the same area. E. says : " Here 
is a picture — it begins here (pointing to demonstration picture) 
tohere the hoy is getting dressed. It shoios the same hoy^ — remerriber. 
the very same hoy — doing one thing after another during the same 
day. (E. points along first row and then along second to indicate 
the sequence in which the pictures come.) You see in each picture 
a piece is missing. Here are a lot of small pieces. They go into the 
empty places. You are to pick out the piece that you think is needed., 
that is hest to make the picture right. For example., what is gone 
heref'' (pointing to demonstration picture). If S. answers correctly, 
E. says " Thafs fine. Now see if you can find the hest piece for each 
of the other places.''^ If S. does not answer correctly, E. finds the 
piece for him, explains why it is right, and then says: '^^Now see^ 
etc. — " as above. E. gives lio help after the first explanation, but S. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



81 



is allowed to change pieces if he wishes. When S. indicates that he 
has finished as well as he can, time is recorded. The time limit is 
10 minutes. 

Scoring. — No credit is given for time, but the very slow are indi- 
rectly penalized by not finishing in the time limit. The scoring of 
the performance is indicated in the accompanying table. When a 
square is left unfilled, the score for that item is 0. Negative score 
on the entire test counts as zero. 

Maximum raw score, 100. 

Scoring of completion test. 

[The value of minus 5 is to be given to all placings where in the table below no 
numbers are' inserted. These represent the marked absurdities,] 

VALUE OF PIECES IN PICTURES. 



Pieces 



I. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

0. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 



...0.. 
...0.. 
6.5 



II 

y.o. 



Ill 

.a'. 



IV 



VI 



..0. 
'.'.0. 

'.'.0. 
..5. 

10 

'.'.0. 
'.'.0. 



13.5 

...1.. 
...4.. 



17 



VII 



VIII 



..1. 
5.5 



..0. 
15 



IX 



12.5 

...0... 



72219—18- 



82 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 

(b) PROCEDURE FOR NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING SUBJECTS. 

E. should take care that his directions do not appear too artificial. 
For this reason he should not always remain absoluteh' silent. He 
should try to use whatever w^ords are intelligible to his subject. 
"No," "Yes," "Hurry," etc., can be used in most cases; and even 
when S. does not understand, it is often better for E. to speak as 
well as gesture. The aim here is only to make the instructions in- 
telligible apart from the language used. 

Test 1.— The Ship Test. 

E. show^s S. the frame with the pieces properly fitted therein. 
After S. looks at picture for 10 seconds, E. Avithdraws picture, re- 
moves pieces and presents the empty frame and the pieces arranged 
as in Fig. 1. E. points in order to S., to the pieces, to the frame, and 
nods affirmatively. If S. does not understand, E. repeats. 

Test 2.— Manikin and Feature Profile. 

E. places pieces before S. as previously described. Then points to 
S., to pieces, nods affirmatively, and sweeps hands together over pieces 
to indicate that they are to be assembled. This may be repeated. If 
S. does not understand, or if pieces are not properly assembled in 
the time limit, E. demonstrates part (a) and goes on to (h). 

Test 3. — Cube Imitation. 

E. places the cube board before S. as previously described; then 
taps the first imitation problem slowly, puts down the tapping cube, 
points to S., and nods affirmatively. If S. fails to understand, E. 
repeats; if he begins at the wrong end, E. shakes head negatively, 
points to the first cube, and repeats the problem. E. should make sure 
he has subject's attention before tapping any problem. 

Test 4. — Cube Construction. 

(a) E. presents model 1 and the corresponding blocks, points to 
bottom, top, and sides of model: then places it upon the table and 
assembles the blocks rather slowly, turning each l)lock over in the 
fingers and pointing to painted and unpainted sides. E. now presents 
the same model and the blocks in irregular order, then points in order 
to S., to the model, to the blocks, and nods affirmatively. E. repeats, 
if S. does not understand. 

(7)) E. presents model 2 with the nine blocks for its construction; 
shows S. bottom, top, and sides of model ; then places it upon the 
table, points to S., to the model, to the blocks, and nods affirmatively. 
E. repeats gestures, if S. does not understand. 

(c) E. presents model 3, turns it over slowly, showing each side, 
presents blocks, picks up a block, points to painted side, shakes head, 
points to unpainted side, nods, puts down block, points to S., to 
model, and to blocks, nods affirmatively. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 83 

Test 5. — Form Board. 

E. places board before S. as previous^ described, points to scjiiare 
and to empty spaces, and proceeds slowly to change blocks and put in 
square. E. next removes board, rearranges it for problem (a), and 
again presents it to S. He then points to S., to square, and to board, 
nodding affirmatively. If S. does not understand, E. repeats ges- 
tures; and if problem is not solved in the time limit he again demon- 
strates the correct solution and passes on to (h) . Problems (h) and 
(c) are presented in the same way except that they are not demon- 
strated in case of S.'s failure. 

Test 6. — Designs, 

E. shows S. demcmstrational design (,/>) for 10 seconds. Then he 
takes it away and draws it for S. He now shoAvs test design (a) for 
10 seconds; then takes it away, gives S. pencil and paper, points to S., 
to paper, nods affirmatively. If S. does not respond. E. draws it for 
him, then passes on to (h) . Designs (6), (c), and (d) are presented 
in tlie same way except that E. does not demonstrate further. 

Test 7.— Digit Symbol. 

E. shows S. the record sheet, points to blank below 2 in the sample, 
then to symbol for 2 at top of page, writes in s^inbol, proceeds in the 
same way with the other parts of the sample, then gives S. pencil, 
points to space below 3 in the test, and nods affirmatively. 

Test 8.— The Maze. 

E. shows S. demonstration maze (r/), and with his pencil proceeds 
to trace the shortest Avay out. At critical points he hesitates, moves 
pencil in Avrong direction without marking, shakes his head, and con- 
tinues to work in the right direction. He next presents test maze A, 
gives S. pencil, points to starting point and to exit of maze, and nods 
affirmatively. If S. fails to understand. E. demonstrates again with 
maze A and passes on to {7j). Mazes (h), (r), and (d) are presented 
in the same way, but no more demonstration is given. 

Test 9.^Picture Arrangement. 

E. presents demonstrational set and allows S. to see it for about 15 
seconds. Then, making sure that S. is attending, he slowly re- 
arranges the pictures and points to each one in succession, attracting 
subject's attention especially, to the sequence of important details. 
Next E. removes these pictures and presents set (a), points to S., and 
moves his hand about the pictures to indicate that they are to be 
arranged. If S. does not understand, E. shows him the proper 
arrangement and then goes on to set (h). Sets (h) , (6'), and (d) are 
presented in the same way as (<2), except that no further demonsti'a- 
tion is given if S. fails. 

Test 10. — Picture Completion. 

E, places material before S. as previously described. He then 
slowdy points to the same boy in each of the pictures in succession to 
indicate the proper sequence of events. He next returns to the dem- 



84 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 

onstrational picture, points to dressed and undressed foot and to 
empty space. Xext he looks leisurely over the small blocks, tries the 
slippei- or the low shoe in the space, points to dressed foot, and shakes 
his head negativel}-. Then he puts in the correct piece showing satis- 
faction Avith result. Finally, he points in order to picture 1, to S., to 
small blocks, and to the iempty space in the picture, and nods affirma- 
tively. If S. does not understand, E. repeats. 

(c) DIRECTIONS FOR USING RECQRD BLANK. 

In general, the subject is given credit for both speed and accuracy 
or degree of success ; and the record blank is designed to convert time 
and accuracy measurements into points of credit w^ithout delay or 
inconvenience. 

As soon as S. has completed tests 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, or 9, or any part 
of any one of them, E. checks the space containing the figures which 
include the subject's time. In tests 1, 2, and 9, he next scores the per- 
formance for accuracy ; and, if the conditions for crediting time are 
fulfilled, he adds the credit below the time checked to the credit for 
accuracy and records the sum in the column marked " score." In 
tests 4 and 5, E. also checks the space which includes the number 
of moves ; and, if the conditions for crediting are fulfilled, he adds 
the credit below time checked to the credit below moves checked and 
records the sum in the column marked " score," as above. In test 8 
time is checked and the credit for time added to the credit for suc- 
cess, etc., as before. The abbreviations T. L. in these tests means 
" time limit " ; and this space is checked only when S. is actually 
stopped before the test or part of the test is completed. 
■ In test 3, E. records the response only when it is incorrect; but 
always writes + or — in the proper column. In test 10, the number 
on the back of the block selected for a given picture is written below 
the number of the picture, and the credit for that part is written 
in the next spacie below. If no block is selected for any given picture, 
E. leaves that space blank. Tests 6 and 7 require no explanation. 

The score for each part of tests 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9 are written in the 
column marked " score " ; and then these part scores are totalled below 
the heavy line, except in test 2, where the total for the two parts is 
merely written at the foot of the space for score. In all other tests 
only the total score for the test is written in the " score " column. 

(d) DIRECTIONS FOR WEIGHTING PERFORMANCE-SCALE SCORES. 

The raAv score for each of the 10 tests is converted into a weighted 
or equalized score, which is entered on the performance-scale record 
blank and on the psychological record card in the column headed: 
" Wtd. score." This weighted score is obtained by means of the ac- 
companying table. In the table all the possible raw scores for each 
test are listed in columns bearing the number of the test. The. 
weighted scores corresponding are listed in the columns under the 
letter " W " at either side of the page. For example, to convert a 
raw score, in test 1, into a weighted score, look at the column under 
figure 1, find the raw score, and take the score in either column W 
which is on the same. line. Thus, the weighted score corresponding 
to tlie raw score 19, in test 1, is 13. The weighted score correspond- 
ing to the raw score 35, in test 7, is 15, etc. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AliMV. 



85 







Table 


for 

y 


weightmq* performanee 


scale 


scores 


• 




w. 


1 


2 


5 


4 


.5 

0-2 

3-5 

6-7 

8 

9 

10 

11 


6 


7 


! 
8 

0- 3 

4- 7 

8-10 

11-13 

14-15 

16 

17 
18 
19 


9 \ 


w 


If. 




] 
2 
3 


0-3 

4- 6 

7- 9 

10-11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 
17 

18 
""19' 
"""26' 

"'""ii" 


0-] 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 




""i' 
'""2 


0- 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 




1 

2 
""3 

4 




1- 4 

5- 7 

8-10 

11-13 

14-15 

16-17 
18-19 
20-21 
22-23 
24-25 

26-27 
28-29 
30-31 
32-33 
34-35 

36-37 
38-39 
40-41 
42-43 
44-45 

46-47 
48-49 
50-51 
52-53 
.54-55 

56-57 
58-59 
60-61 
62-63 
64-65 

66-67 


0- 1 

2 

3 ! 

1 







1 
2 
3 


4 
5 

6 


4 

5 

6' 


1- 2 
3- 5 

6- 8 

9- 11 

12- 14 

15- 17 

la- 20 

21- 23 
24- 26 
27- 30 
31- 33 
34- 37 

38- 40 
41- 44 
45- 47 
48- 50 
51- 53 

54- 56 
57- 59 
60- 62 
63- 65 

66- 68 

69- 71 

72- 74 
75- 77 • 
78- 80 
81- 86 

87- 92 
93-100 


4 
5 

6 


7 


7 
8 




7 


8 
9 


12 


5 


8 
9 


10 
11 


9 


3 


10 
11 


13 
14 


6 


20 
....... 

"""22' 

23 

'"'24' 

25 

""'26' 


27 

'"'28' 
29 
30 

31 
32 


7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12-13 

14-15 

16-17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

32 


10 
IT 


1^ 


10 

"'ii' 

12 




^9. 


13 
14 


4 


12 
13 

14 
.15 


15 


7 


13 

14 


15 
16 


16 


8 


15 
16 


17 


17 


9 


17 


18 






18 


19 
?,0 


"""22" 


13 


5 


16 
17 


18 


10 


19 
20 


^1 


14 




19 
20 

""2V 
22 


11 
""i2' 
"13" 


21 


?,?, 




18 
19 
20 
21 

22 

23 

24-25 

26-27 

28-30 


?,?, 


23 
24 
^5 


23 


15 
16 


6 


23 
24 
25 


?.C^ 


"""24" 


17 
38 


/ 


2f> 


27 


23 
24 

"'25' 

26 


14 

""15' 
16 

17 


27 
28 


29 
30 

31 


".""25' 


19 
20 


8 

9 
30 


29 
■30 

31 


3^ 






3'^ 



















(e) AN ABBREVIATED PERFORMANCE SCALE. 

If time does not permit the giving of the complete performance 
scale, a short scale selected from tests 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 may be 
used. These tests must be given in the f olloAving order : 7, 6, 2, 4, 8, 1, 3 
(or 3, 1). After each test is given E. should compute the weighted 
score obtained by S. up to that point; and he may discontinue the 
examination after the first test, if the score is 14 or more; after the 
second, if it is 22; after the third, if it is 27; and after the fourth, if 
it is 32. The fifth test should be given if the score on four tests is 
less than 32; but only very rarely need more than five tests be used. 

If S. is absolutely illiterate (whether American or foreign born), 
E. should begin with test 6 instead of 7, and follow the same pro- 
cedure. 

If the examination is discontinued after the first test. S. should 
be rated D (C — , if the score is 21 or more) and as a rule recom- 
mended for regular service. If two or more tests are given, a final 



86 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 



>core should be obtained by finding the average for the tests actually 

. given and multiplying by 10. The letter rating for this score can 

then be read from the table of norms for the short scale. If eight or 

more tests are given, the norms for the long scale should be used. 

(f) EXPRESSING AND INTERPRETING RESULTS. 

Tht^ results of the performance-scale examination should be ex- 
pressed in the following ways: (1) Total weighted score; (2) letter 
rating; (3) mental age. The letter ratings corresponding to various 
scores and mental ages are as follows: 

Complete scale. Short scale. Mental age. 

2 4.5 

4 5 5 

r> 8 5.5 

I) 12 6 

17 17 6.5 

80 24 7 

41 33 7.5 

.12 42 8 

62 53 8.5 

72 67 9 

91 86 9.5 

114 108 10 

1.S5 121 10.5 

158 144 11 

166 158 11.5 

1 75 169 12 

188 179 12.5 

189 188 18 
195 197 13.5 
201 205 14 
208 214 14.5 
216 223 15 
223 232 15.5 
230 241 16 
237 250 16.5 
244 259 17 
251 267 17.5 
2.58 275 18 
268 283 18.5 
290 291 19 

Letter ratings should be assigned as follows: 

Complete scale. Short scale. 

A 260-311 275-308 

B 240-259 2.50-274 

C+ 215-239 220-249 

C 190-214 190-219 

C— 150-189 14.5-189 

D : 90-149 85-144 

^ D— 0-89 0- 84 

Grade E should be given to all men who are recommended by the 
examiner for discharge. Development Battalion, or service organi- 
zation, and to such men only. All men whose intelligence is deemed 
satisfactory for regular military duty shall be given rating of D— 
or higher. 

Subjects obtaining a score of 100 points or more (short scale) may 
ordinarily be recommended for regular military training; subjects ob- 
taining 40 to 99 points should be considered for assignment to service 
organization or Development Battalion; those below 40 points should 
ordinarily be considered for discharge. 



5. MECHANICAL-SKILL TEST. 

The mechanical test is intended for use (1) in aiding decision in 
doubtful cases under individual consideration, and (2) as a special 
test of mechanical skill. 

Materials. — One set mechanical test (Stenquist), singk^ series 1. 

Instructions. — Place the open box before S. Avith the cover tOAvard 
him. Sa}', ^^ Here are some things that have been taken apart. You 
are to put them together. Begin here [pointing to A] ; take the parts 
and put them, together so that the thing will work. Then go on to 
this one [pointing to B] ; then to the next^ and so on. If you come 
to one that seems very harcl^ go on to the next on^e^and if there is time 
later try it again. The more things you get done the larger your 
score. Ready — Go.'''' 

Time for the entire test. 30 m^inutes. 

Scoring. — Give 10 points for the complete and correct assembling 
of each object. Total possible score, 100. 

If the assembling of any object is only partially correct, give par- 
tial credit, according to the schedule. A list of the possible steps in 
the assembling is given for each object. Note in each case of partial 
solution which steps have been completed, and give credit for each 
step as indicated. The items included in a brace are alternative 
reactions, therefore give credit of only one number of points from 
any brace. 

It will be noted in D, for example, that, failing only to screw cover 
on, S. gets but 6 points, while screwing the cover on counts but 1 
point. The additional 3 points of penalty are for lack of " work- 
ability." If any step is omitted in the solution of any object except 
E, then item of " workability " is considered as lacking. In E, how- 
ever, credit of 2 points is given for workability if the solution is cor- 
rect except only 2 sides snapped or caps out of order, or both. 

In case of the lock, the spring is properly inserted when the bend 
is hooked over the projection in the frame to prevent slipping. By 
" Spring inserted workably " is meant one of the. three other work- 
able positions in which it is possible to place the spring, but which 
make no use of the bend. 

In the case of the mousetrap, by " in slot " is nleant that the long 
arm of the spring is inserted in the slot of the U-shaped band. By 
"Right way." reference is made to the direction in which the U- 
shaped band snaps. A " weak snap " is occasioned by having the 
spring or springs inverted. If one spring is more nearly correctly 
inserted than the other, count best one; that is, give credit for the 
best spring, and for that only, except in the last case. 

87 



88 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 



Schedule of scores. 



B 



Head inserted correctly. 
Nut screwed on — 

Properly between 

bars of handle 

Otherwise 

Score (wrench) 



cross 



C 



D 



F 



Complete chain of singly joined 

links 

One correct joint between 

links 

Two correct joints __ 

Three correct joints 

Four correct joints ' 

Score (chain) 

Thumb lever inserted in arm- 
holes — 

Below spring, arm of lever 

out , . 

Above spring wrong side 

forward ^ 

Score (tube shut off)- 

Thumb lever on pin either way_ 
(iear on pin right side up in 

mesh with lever 

Knockers right side up in mesh 

with gear 

Cover screwed on 

Spring hooked 

Score (bell) 

Center stud in place 

Springs in place_^ 

Caps in place- 
Out of order ^ 

In order 

Cover snapped — ■ 

Two sides 

Three sides 

Workability 

Score (coin box) 



4 
1 

( ) 



2 
4 
6 

8 
( ) 



Spring correctly placed on one 

stick 

Imperfect usable clothespin — 

l^nsymmetrlcal 

Symmetrical 

Score (clothespin) 



G: 



8 
( ) 



2 

1 

2 

( ) 

2 
1 



1 
3 

1 

2 

2 

( ) 



4 
6 

( ) 



H 



Small lever in place 

Lock bolt in place 

Spring inserted — 

Workably 

Properly 

Top fitted on properly and 

scr6w inserted 

Score (lock) 



Both levers backward 1 

One forward clear in, other 

backward 3 

Other part way in, for- 
ward 4 

Both part way in, forward r> 

Both clear in, forward, one 
facing wrong 8 



Both facing wrong 

Score (paper clip) 



Button properly inserted in 
upper ring 

(Circuit-closing disk properly 
fitted in bottom ring 

Rings snapped together 

Score (electric button )_ 

U-shaped band held in proper 

place by pin or wire 

Trip lever on pin — 

Improperly 

Properly 

Wire lever hooked — 

Improperly 

Properly 

Springs on pin (count best 
one) — 

Weak snap, not in slot, 

either way 

Weak snap, in slot, either 

way 

Strong snap, in slot, w^ong 

way 

Strong snap, in slot, right 
way, 

One spring 

Both springs 



( ) 



Score (mousetrap)- ( ) 



ABBREVIATED MECHANICAL TEST. 



The abbreviated mechanical test includes only items A, B, D, E^ 
and G of the complete test. Time, 15 minutes. Score each item 
according to directions ^iven above and double their sum to secure 
the total score. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 89 

Table of norms. 

(Derived from 909 cases; 303(1 Engineers, Camp Dix.) 

Precentile 
rank, 
Score. per cent. 

- 

10 -- 1.5 

20 ^^ 

30 12 

40 . 22 

50 37 

60 53 

70 69 

80 83 

90 94 

98 100 

Letter rating. Score. 

A 96-100 

B 80-95 

C 40-79 

D 20-39 

E 0-19 



APPENDIX A. 



Table of equivalent scores. 



Alpha. 

1 


Beta. 


Point scale. 


Complete 
performance. 


Short 
performance. 


Stanford- 
Blnet. 










4.0 








3 


2 


• 4. 5 1 








4 


5 


5.0 ' 








6 


8 


5.5 


f 






9 


12 


6.0 






31.5 


17 


17 


6.5 






36 


30 


24 


7.0 




2 


42 


41 


33 


7. 5 




6 


46 


52 


42 


8.0 


2 


11 


51 


62 


53 


8.5 


4 


17 


55.5 


72 


67 


9.0 


7 


24 


60 


91 


86 


9.5 


11 


30 


64 


114 


108 


10.0 


16 


37 


68 


135 


127 


10.5 


21 


42 


71 


153 


144 


11.0 


27 . 


47 


74 


166 


158 


■ 11.5 


33 


53 


77 


.175 


169 


12.0 


40 


58 


79 


183 


' 179 


12. 5 ; 


47 


63 


81 


189 


188 


13.0 


56 


67 


83 


195 


197 


13.5 


63 


71 


85 


201 


205 


14.0 


71 


75 


87 


208 


214 


• 14.5 


78 


78 


88 


216 


223 


15.0 


85 


. 81 


90 


223 


232 , 


15.5 


93 


84 


92 


230 


241 


16.0 


102 


*88 


95 


237 


250 


16.5 


114 


91 


98 


244 


259 


17.0 


125 


95 


100 


251 


267 


17.5 


137 


99 




258 


275 


18.0 


147 


104 




268 • 


283 


18.5 


161 


108 




290 


291 


19.0 



Basis for the assigmnent of letter grades. 





Alpha. 


Beta. 


Point scale. 


Whole 
performance. 


Short 
performance. 


Stanford- 
Binet. 


.\.... 


135-212 


100-118 


Not given. 


260-311 


275-308 


18 -19.5 


B... 


105-134 


90- 99 


95-100 


240-259 


250-274 


16.5-17.9 


C+.. 


75-104 


80- 89 


90- 94 


215-239 . 


220-249 


15 -16.4 


c... 


45- 74 


65- 79 


80- 89 


190-214 


190-219 


13 -14.9 


c... 


25- 44 


45- 64 


70- 79 


150-189 


145-189 


11 -12.9 


D... 


15- 24 


20- 44 


60- 69 


90-149 


85-144 


9.5-10.9 


D- . 


0- 14 


0- 19 


0- 59 


0- 89 


0- 84 


0-9.4 



91 



APPENDIX B.— EXAMINER'S OUTFIT. 



I. A supplementary outfit is furnished at the commencement of 
camp examining to provide for the immediate needs of the staff. 
This outfit includes : 

(1) 6 gross lead pencils. 

(2) 3 pencil sharpeners. 

(3) 2 typewriters. 

(4) 2 typewriter tables. 

(5) 1 chest of tools. 

Additions to and replenishment of these materials must be secured 
regularly from the medical supply officer by requisition through the 
division or camp surgeon. 

II. Psychological equipment, as such, consists of three groups: 

(A) Group examining outfit. 

(B) Individual examining outfit. 

(C) Printed materials. 

The regular procedure for increasing or replacing these supplies 
is a request through military channels addressed to the Surgeon 
General of the Army, attention Division of Psychology. 

The various items under psychological equipment are listed below. 

(A) Group examining: 

1. Beta outfit — 

(a) Blackboard frame. 

(h) Beta chart. 

(<?) 6 cardboard pieces, test 7. 

2. Alpha stencils for each form. 

3. Beta stencils. 

(B) Individual examining: 

1. Point-scale materials. 

2. Stanford-Binet materials. 

3. Performance-scale materials— 

(a) Ship test. 
(h) Manikin. 

(c) Feature profile. 

(d) Cube construction. 

(e) Cube imitation. 
(/) Form board. 

(g) Picture arrangement. 
(h) Picture completion. 

4. Mechanical skill test. 

(C) Printed materials: 

1. Group examination Alpha, five forms. 

2. Group examination Beta. 

3. Point-scale examination.. 

4. Stanford-Binet examination. 

5. Performance-scale examination. 

6. Psychological record. 

T. Eeport of psychological examination. 
8. Examiner's guide. 
92 



APPENDIX C— BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. 



Following authorization by the Secretary of War for construction 
in each camp of special psychology building, it was decided to secure, 
wherever possible, the assignment of small barracks building, and to 
remodel the same for psychological use. Suitable building for psy- 
chological examining has been designated in many of the divisional 
training camps. In others, temporary arrangements have been ef- 
fected. For the use of the school of military psychology, Medical 
Officers's Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., a special psychology 
building has been constructed. 

In general, it is desirable that building for psychological examin- 
ing be located conveniently near receiving and examining station of 
camp, and if possible also near the personnel office and the office of 
the camp surgeon and psychiatrist. Where there is a depot brigade 
the building should be either in or near the same. Since the psy- 
chologist will have important functions in connection with the de- 
velopment battalion, it also should be considered in selecting loca- 
tion for psychological work. 

For the information of examiners and their guidance in selecting 
and planning for the remodeling of such building as they may secure 
for their work, the plans of special psychology building are repro- 
duced herewith. 

In planning modifications for any assigned building, it is well to 
keep in mind the fact that other uses than psychological examining 
will be found for the psychological building. In the original plan 
it Avas intended that the Division of Psychiatry should also have an 
office in the building and, where necessary, sufficient examining space 
for individual examinations and consultation. In certain of the 
camps plans are already on foot to use this building for medical 
conferences, for conferences between psychiatrists, psychologists, 
and line officers, for addresses to the line officers on morale, and for 
discussions and conferences on methods of instruction, and training 
of the new recruit. 

The first floor of the original building was planned to contain 
Alpha and Beta examining roonis and a storeroom for heavy mate- 
rials. The Alpha examining room was planned to seat on the floor 
160 to 200 men. This room was without benches, but the necessary 
space for each man is marked out roughly by lines running cross- 
wise of the length of the room. These lines were spaced 3 feet apart. 
Since the men were to be seated on the floor or on small wicker mats, 
it was deemed desirable to make the -floor of this room of double 
thickness. A small reading stand with shelves was planned for the 

93 



94 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 



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96 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 




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PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 97 

large examining room. The small examining room, or Beta room, 
was planned to seat between 00 and 100 men. A bench designed for 
this room, with its partitions and other measurements, is shown in 
Fig. 8. It was also deemed desirable to have in this room a raised 
platform, about 18 inches high, from which the demonstrations 
could be more easily seen from the back of the room. A bank of 
lights so arranged as to illuminate the Beta blackboard will be found 
essential on cloudy days. Cross-lights should be avoided. Lights 
in Alpha room should barely clear the tallest men. 

The storeroom should have built-in shelves sufficient to enable the 
examiner to unpack at least one week's supply of the necessary exam- 
ining materials. Similar shelves should be planned for the scoring 
room, record room, office, and small storeroom. Shelves in the record 
room can be made wider than usual shelving, so that if long, narrow 
boxes are built to contain the record cards they ma}' be placed length- 
wise across these shelves. Other necessary changes are indicated on. 
the plan. 

A certain amount of furniture, either built by the construction 
quartermaster or supplied through the camp quartermaster upon 
requisition, is indicated in the plan. Examiners should have on hand 
at least 250 strips of beaver board 12 by 18 inches, Avicker mats for 
the Alpha. examining room, if possible, and a sufficient supply of wall 
hooks for overcoats and hats of those being examined. Each of the 
individual rooms on the second floor should be supplied with small 
tables. In addition, about 20 small tables, 3 by 6 feet, 30 inches high, 
are needed in the scoring room. According to the desire of the exam- 
iner, these tables may be supplied with special scoring tops, as indi- 
cated in the specifications and plan in Fig. 8. For the regular Avork 
of the examining staff and scorers at least 75 ordinary chairs should 
be sufficient. 

This is a brief description of the building and equipment as origi- 
nally planned for the psychological examining staff. It is obvious 
that no one of the buildings already constructed can be adapted to 
meet these suggestions exactly. The original plan and equipment 
are presented here as suggestions rather than as essential in all 
details. It is essential that the individual examining be done under 
as uniform conditions as possible. It is necessary that the chief 
examiner have a definite address and office within the camp boimd- 
aries, and it is further essential that proper storage space be fur- 
nished and supplied with locks or guards to protect against loss of 
examining materials. It is also necessary, for accurate scoring and 
recording, that permanent and sufficient floor space be supplied for 
the scoring unit. Outside these essential and necessary requirements 
and the expendible equipment necessary to carry on the examining, 
scoring, and recording, physical properties will vary considerably 
from camp to camp. 

72219—18 7 ^ 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AKMY. 99 



X/i 



to 



100 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY.. 





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PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 101 



CO 



p 
to 



102 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AE.MY. 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 103 






104 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 



• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AHMY. 105 



go 



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106 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 




PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE ARMY. 107 



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108 PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINING IN THE AEMY. 




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